To
measure the COPD disease, the stage of which needed to be noticed.

Stage
0 – At risk: Treatment is not necessarily needed in this stage, as the COPD is
not actually been developed. Patient may have the symptoms of coughing and
noticeable protective secretion of the mucus membranes. Do heed the warning and
do some prevention as once COPD is developed, it can’t be cured. The diet and
exercise routine need to be renewed and change to someway that can improve
overall health. Smoking is necessary to be ceased.

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First
stage- Mild: Symptoms include chronic cough and increased mucus production may
be developed but not noticed by people.

Second
stage- Moderate: Shortness of breath may be experienced in addition to the
cough and mucus. Long-acting bronchodilator may be needed. Symptoms are more
noticeable.

Third
stage- Severe: Severe symptoms may occur from time to time. Normal functioning
is difficult. Corticosteroids, other medications or oxygen therapy is needed.

Forth stage- Very severe: Symptoms become intense
and everyday tasks is harder to be complete. The eruption can be
life-threatening. Surgical treatment is needed.

(Healthline,
2016)

 

COPD can’t be cured. However, through the treatment,
medications or lifestyle changes, the symptom of which can be eased, the chance
of complication will become lower and the quality of life and overall health
will be improved. If the COPD remains untreated, heart problems and worse
respiratory infections may happen as a result. COPD is not an acute illness but
it takes time to develop. Also, COPD is not contagious. COPD
can be prevented before it starts. (Lung.ca, 2014)

Lifestyle changes:

Cease
to smoke is the best way to prevent COPD as smoking is the biggest cause of COPD. Quit
smoking can help prevent complications and slow the progression of COPD. Also,
lung irritants such as air pollution, chemicals, fumes, dusts and second hand
smoke should be avoided as they can contribute to COPD.

Following an eating plan that the nutritional needs
can be met as the patient may have trouble eating enough due to the symptoms
such as fatigue and shortness of breath. As a result, the calories and
nutrients that body needs may not be completely absorb, which can worsen the
symptoms and risk for infections will become higher. Smaller portion and more
frequent meals is recommended. Patient should also rest before eating, and
consume some vitamins or nutritional supplements. Physical activity is
recommended as the muscles that help breathing can be strengthen and the
overall wellness can be improved. (Nhlbi.nih.gov, 2017)

Medicines:

1. Bronchodilators

A
bronchodilator is used as a way to open the airway passages and makes breathing
easier.as it relax the muscles around the airways.

Short-acting
or long-acting bronchodilators are prescribed to be used depends on the
severity of COPD. Short-acting bronchodilators are used as a “quick
relief” or “rescue” medication, they are prescribed when the
COPD is mild. Whereas long-acting bronchodilators can be used every day or
regular and are prescribed if the COPD is moderate or severe.

2.
Combination Bronchodilators Plus Inhaled – Glucocorticosteroids (Steroids)

When
COPD is more severe, combination of medicines that includes a bronchodilator
and an inhaled steroid is prescribed. Combination inhalers contain two
medications normally given in separate inhalers, a long?acting beta2?agonist
(LABA), which is a bronchodilator that widens the tubes in the lungs, and a
steroid which helps reducing airway inflammation control. This combination
inhaler may make it easier to take the medication than using separate inhalers.

3.
Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors

This
medication, which is in pill form, can reduce the inflammation and change mucus
production. Generally, it is prescribed for severe COPD.

4.
Theophylline

This
medicine reduces chest tightness and eases shortness of breath. It may help prevent
sudden eruption. It’s usually taken twice a day.

5.
Antibiotics and antivirals

When
respiratory infection is developed, antibiotics and antivirals are prescribed.
It’s taken as soon as symptoms of an infection are experienced.

6.
Mucolytic tablets or capsules

When
symptoms of persistent chesty cough with lots of thick phlegm is developed,
mucolytic medication called carbocisteine is prescribed. The phlegm in throat
will become thinner and easier to cough up by taking the mucolytic medications.
It’s usually taken three times a day.

(nhs.uk,
2016)

Vaccines:

1.
Flu shots

Serious
problems can be caused by the flu or influenza for people who have COPD. The
risk of getting the flu can be reduced by flu shots.

2.
Pneumococcal Vaccine

The
risk for pneumococcal pneumonia and its complications are reduced.

Pulmonary Rehabilitation

Strength
can be rebuilt and wellbeing of people who have chronic breathing problems can
be improved. Pulmonary rehabilitation combine exercise training, diseae
management training, nutrition advice and psychological counselling.

Oxygen Therapy

Extra
or supplemental oxygen is required as when severe COPD is developed, levels of
oxygen in blood will become lower. As body needs oxygen to function, oxygen
therapy can help patient to breath better. Oxygen is delivered through a mask
or nasal prongs. Oxygen therapy can also help protecting heart and other organs
form damage.

Surgery

Surgery is not compulsory for everyone who develop COPD. When the
symptoms not improved from taking medicines, lung surgery is suggested.

1. Bullectomy

Larger air spaces called bullae form when the walls of the air
sacs are destroyed. Breathing is interfered with as the air spaces are so
large. One or more very large bullae from the lungs was removed in bellectomy.

2. Lung volume reduction surgery

Damaged tissue was removed from the lungs. Lungs can work better
after this. Also, breathing and quality of life can be improved.

3. Lung Transplant

Damaged lung was removed
and was replaced with a healthy lung. Lung function and quality of life can be
improved. However, the surgery can be risky. The transplant lung may bring
infections or rejections that people must take anti-rejection medicines for the
rest of their lives.