This section of
the report will present the quantitative data and qualitative data on the field
work conducted. The narrative of the tables will be provided, and the actual
tables representing measured concepts and indication of responses obtained from
variables will be attached. This section will give a summary of the profile of
the sample used in the study.

 

Sample Profile

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The
research sample is a representative of Qadi Traditional Authority in Eskotshi
Village. The traditional Authority and the village fall under Bothas Hill,
commonly known as The Valley of A Thousand Hill. In terms of local government jurisdiction,
the area of the study is in the Outer West Region of  Ethekwini Municipality. The area is very
unique. The uniqueness can be attributed to that Ethekwini is a Metro, which
has mixed residential areas. Mixed in this instance is refer to Urban and Rural
areas that fall under same jurisdiction of the Metro. The village under study
is of rural nature, which comprised of dual leadership (democratically elected
and traditional leaders). The interest in relation to the topic is that studies
carried out within the municipality focussed primarily on urban areas and
private properties Abel, (2011).  Therefore the question of waste management
trends and offences associated with remains of particular importance in the
rural areas of this metro.

The
area has various infrastructure critical to basic needs. These will include
electrified households, schools, roads, health care centre (within 2km radius)
and other social amenities like churches. There is running water. The
sanitation project was completed a couple of years  back by the municipality. The area can be characterised
by uneven topography which is generally steep and hilly. All respondents were
over the age of 18 years.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Presentation
of research findings

The
following statement is found in the draft integrated waste management of
Ethekwini municipality, ” There is no
practical guidance for rural households to safely and legally dispose of their
waste” (www.durban.gov.za.) It confirms that the problem is there and
acknowledged by authorities. There is however a service for waste collection
rendered by a hired contractor. The question that emerges from the above
statement is whether the municipality takes the issue of domestic waste
management seriously, particularly in the rural areas.

1.
Demographics

 1.1. Years in the address

80% of the respondents in the households
and lived in Eskotshi village for a period of between 6-10, whereas only 20%
has lived in the area for more than 10 years.

1.2.
Type of leadership in the area

80% of the respondents
said there is dual leadership in Eskotshi. The dual leadership is in terms of
rational leaders (amakhosi) and ward councillors.

1.3
Ownership of residence

60% percent of
respondents own property in which they stay, 20% are renting and another 20%
live there because it is either their parents home or relatives.

2.
Understanding about the importance of waste management and the environment

In
terms of importance of waste management, 100% of the respondents had a fairly
good understanding of what waste management is about. They all choose the all
of the above option, based on the combination of describing statements. In
terms of describing environmental care,80% of the respondents had a fairly good
understanding of the different elements making up the environment. 20% of the
respondents said only air is an element of environmental care.

3.
Illegal Dumping Practices

In
terms of describing illegal dumping, 80%
of the respondents said that illegal dumping is dumping where you are not supposed
to. 20% said its dumping where you see other dump. In terms of presence of illegal
dumping site, 100% of respondents said yes, they knew the site. 100% of respondents confirmed that all the
listed type of waste items is dumped on the site under concern. 40% of
respondents said the dumping has been going on for more than 10 years, 40% said
it has been between 5-10 years and 20% said it has dumping has been going on
for between 1-5 years. With regards to perceptions of contributing factors to
illegal dumping, 40% of respondents said it was due to lack of knowledge about
correct procedures of waste disposal, 20 % said its lack of knowledge about the
existence of waste collection service and 40% said it was individuals choice.

 

4. Awareness about Waste Collection
Service

100%
of respondents said yes, there is a waste collection service in the area. In
terms of whether waste collection service has always existed, 40% said yes, 40%
said they did not know and 20% said no the waste collection service has not always
existed in the area. In terms of how long the service has existed, 60% said for
more than 3 years, and 40% did not know. With regards to how the waste
collection service was introduced in the area 40% said it was in a community
meeting and 60% did not know how it was introduced. About who introduced the
waste service collection, 40% of respondents said it was the local councillor,
and 60% said they did not know. About who pays for the waste collection
service, 80% responded that it is Ethekwini municipality and 20% said the
government department paid for the service. In terms of how frequency of
collection, 100% of respondents said waste is collected once a week. About who
is assigned to collect the waste, 80% of respondents said it’s a contractor and
20% did not know. With regards to the collection point, 100% of respondents
said it is by the gate of individual properties. In terms of whether waste
collection service is well utilised, 20% of respondents said yes, 60% said no
and 20% did not know. When asked what could be the reason for poor utilisation
of waste collection service 20% of the respondents said it could be due to lack
of knowledge about the existence of waste collection service, 20% said it could
be due distance from the main route and 60% said there were other reasons for
the poor utilisation of waste collection service.

5. Practices of waste
management

In
terms of waste disposal strategies for own homes, 20% of respondents said they
burn the waste and 80% said it is collected by the municipality. With regards
to waste disposal management 80% said other households burn their waste, and
20% said other households burn their waste. When asked what could be the impact
of illegal dumping 20% said it can spread diseases, whereas 80% said  illegal dumping can  promote transmission of diseases, Can
physically harm people (sharp objects in the litter), Litter can trap,
suffocate, strangle and poison wildlife including domestic animals

 

6. Education, Policy
and law enforcement

In
terms of education, awareness campaigns/training about various waste management
practices enforcement of policy, 100% of the respondents said they have not
attended any of the trainings in the last two years.  In terms of where offenders are reported, 80%
of the participants said at Ethekwini Municipality and 20% said at nowhere.
With regards the ways which the communities can use to report, 80% said to the
ward councillor and 20% said to the ward committee member.

6.5. Do you know
the section that handles illegal dumping cases in the municipality? Name it.

60% of the respondents
did not know which section of the municipality handles illegal dumping. 20%
said reporting is done at Wyebank, another 20% said reporting is done in
Hillcrest Sizakala office. None of the respondents was specific about the
section responsible. 

6.6.1.
How does presence of illegal dumping site affect you

20%
of the respondents said it makes the area messy, stinky and unhygienic 20% said
it makes the area unhygienic, 20% said it makes an unhealthy, unpleasant
odours, refuse is blown by wind to our yards. Some shops dump on this site and
all kind of trash blows to our yards and that Disposed objects can cause harm
to residents. 20% said illegal dumping in this area reduces the quality of air
we breathe.  20% said it reflects
negatively on the residents of the area, it sends the message that they do not
care about the environment, the sight of trash is appalling, I do not want to
be associated with it. 20% of the respondents said the dumping site presents an
foul odour, brings litter to our yards.

6.6.2
How does the presence of illegal dumping site affect other neighbours

20%
of the respondents said they did not know how this affects the neighbours, he
had never had a discussion with neighbours about the issue. 40% of the
respondents said it affects the neighbour the same way it affects him (litter
blows to the yard, unpleasant odour). 40% said the odour from trash makes the
area unattractive to residents, some dogs drags used nappies to the yards of
neighbours including my yard from the dump, it then presents a risk of
spreading germs and diseases. The worst part is that the dumping site it at the
entrance of the village

6.7.
What do you think can be done minimise illegal dumping

60%
of the respondents said that fines must be imposed to offenders, The site
should be monitored by hidden cameras to catch the suspects. The camera can be
planted on the street pole and should be minuscule. 40% said warning signs
should be installed, the signs should display “No illegal Dumping”.
20% said a cover in a form of soil should be spread on top of the dump, and
have No dumping sign erected. 20% said municipal workers should do more
outreach programmes to make people aware of services and disadvantages of
illegal dumping, sites closer to offenders should be identified for the
municipality to provide containers/ for separating waste (bottles, garden
refuse, cans etc)

6.8.  Who is best suited to do this and why?

The
ward councillor was identified by 20% of respondents as the right person to
initiate minimisation interventions for illegal because many of the local
matters are reported to him and is expected to act on what has been reported on
behalf of the residents.

20%
said the municipality, should work hand in glove with residents and traditional
authority because the issue affects all of them.

40%
said it should be the different government departments so all of them can bring
in resources, SAPS was mentioned as one of the department to be involved. They
should come and address the local community together.

20%
said it should Ethekwini municipality because they are responsible for cleaning
the environment. Residents need to more responsible and know what and what not
to do.

 

Qualitative
Data

In
order to study this type of tradition as an observer, several photographs of
offenders were taken.

The
frequency of dumping was more than once a week for a local liquor store which
is situated at 800km from the dumping site. One of the workers from the store
pushes a green trolley bin to empty it to the dumping site. Some of the
neighbours were observed to dump any day of the week, others have resorted to
dump during the night. This started after the observer started asking curiously
why they were dumping. The offenders that dump used disposable nappies were the
tenants residing in the neighbourhood.

Among
the offenders a local liquor store owner, spaza shop owners and normal
residents. At times unknown 1 ton truck were seen dumping at the site. This
alleged offender was asked how did he came from outside to dump in this area,
he said he works with a local residence who told him there is a dumping site in
his neighbourhood that is why he came. Another concern recorded was that
children were spotted playing on the slope, collecting some of the waste to
make own toys. Burning of the waste was noticed. It is never easy to tell who
starts the fire and why, when it happens the area becomes so dark on the road
such that visibility is affected. This makes driving very challenging which may
lead to unnecessary accidents.

Out
of six attempts made to get through the municipality by calling numbers
supplied in the website, only one was successful. It would seem there is no
dedicated personnel to receive telephone calls in this section. One then wonders
how can the municipality act on offenders if it is so daunting to even report a
case. The Sizakala Centre in Hillcrest was visited in attempt to seek help,
report and at least have a face to face discussion with the officials. There
was no official based in this office, however the administrator was very
helpful. She allowed for a free call to the illegal dumping report line, the
phone rang until the researcher gave up on calling. Whilst in the same office,
she was connected directly to the Durban Solid Waste Unit. The same problem
of  “no reply was encountered. Such
experiences are not very encouraging for researchers, or even to community
members who may have cases to report.