This
section is based on literature review. This literature review will cover the
key words such as Emily Dickinson Sylvia Plath, confessional poet, style, critic’s
views etc. Dickinson’s poem on death various criticism and previous studies are
discussed.

What is literature?        

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 Literature is a multidimensional phenomenon.
The complex nature of literature has given birth to divergent and many
approaches about literature. Similarly there are certain conventional and
unconventional ways and approaches to interpret a piece of literature. We can say
that literature is the portray of life through the medium of language. Language
is a crucial material source in literature because any piece of literature is a
work of language first e.g., poetry. Literature is image of society. It permits
us to enjoy, observe and learn the style and languages of people from previous
historical centuries, verses of the poems shows really sincere emotions and
arouse sentiments among readers and helps them to learn the realities of life enlighten
their minds and expand the vision of readers.

 Literature invokes a desire among the readers
to be more appreciative of the true spirit and actual meanings of that literature
that they read. It is not easy since the readers are s to be aware about literary
and historical past of any piece of literature. However they should  possess the sensibility of language in which
it is written and the grammatical and stylistic technicalities concerned in its
composition. Inside the beyond centuries a movement was initiated that has won
momentum especially in the modern days that stresses the claim that one can get
actual meanings of the text by analyzing critically its stylistic and
linguistic technicalities. This effort or this movement is called stylistics.
There have been a lot of studies so far, on stylistics and the investigation of
stylistic devices in literature. A lot of books and articles about this study
have been published especially in the past few decades respectively presenting
insightful notions and methodologies. The importance of stylistic devices in
poetry I ment to carry out a comparative study of investigation of stylistic
devices in Emily Dickinson and Sylvia Plath poetry, in order to obtain more
insight and to draw out a comparison in stylistic devices used in Dickinson and
Plath’s poetry.

What
is poetry?

Poetry in the large
sense brings the’ whole soul of men ‘into activity, with each faculty playing
its proper part according to its ‘relative worth and dignity’. Poetry is not
imagination of poet’s mind but it was an activity of poet’s mind which has not
meter not rhyme and not imagination.

According to Coleridge “Poetry of the highest kind
may exist without meter and even without rhyme and was contradistinguishing
object of mind:”

According to Emily Dickinson ‘If I fee physically as
if the top of my head were taken off, I know that is poetry;

Poetry not only gives pleasure it also increases
learners sensitiveness of beauty specially the beauty of language. Poetry
should be taught for enjoying of thoughts, feeling, imagery, rhyme and rhythm.
It is used to convey emotions or ideas to the readers or listeners mind.

Lyrical
poetry:

A lyrical poetry is non narrative poem. It is
comparatively short poem. A single speaker presents a state of mind. Lyric and
poetry keep some of the element of song which is said to be its origin; elegy,
ode, sonnet, dramatic monologue is subcategories and most occasional poetry of
lyrical.

Emily Dickinson a lot of critics have argued
intensively concerning Dickinson’s poem on death and their topics are various,
such as exploring her different themes, observing and speculating on her
religious beliefs. George and Barbara Perkins praised Dickinson that:

“She
remains incomparable because her originality sets her apart from all others,
but her poems shed the unmistakable light of greatness”. Her poem on death
stands remarkable in the American history.

Some critics paid attention to Dickinson’s use of
language skills and writing style.

 Robert DiY anni indicated how to read Dickinson’s
poem stating that it requires repeated and careful reading because Dickinson
uses indirect language and special patterns in her poems. She leaves a “gap” or
unfinished story in each of her poems, allowing the reader to interpret the
conveyed message.

Carey
Gray pointed out that Dickinson’s fame is totally
from her genius styles of writing. To read and understand her poem, one may
need to concentrate and re- read a verse because she employs unconventional
grammar in her writing. She uses different diction and different figures of
speech than other poets. Her themes are always about the question of life and
especially death for which she uses varied tone in her compositions.

Alice
Fulton revealed that there
are only a small number of poems by Dickinson’s that can be read easily. She
employs a great deal of metaphor in her poetry such as household stuff, plants
or animals. to compare her poems with the language interestingly. It is like “…..all
other poems are tree and her poems are birds” This implies that Dickinson’s
poems are different. Because of the distinctive use of language and imagery,
her poems are difficult to comprehend and interpret.

Niti
Somrak studies Dickinson’s
13 poems on death in his research “A Critical study of Emily Dickinson s
literary works: poetic elements in poem of death”. They normally contain both
senses and sound devices which include: simile, metaphor, symbol,
personification, inversion, ellipsis, repetition, rhyme, alliteration, and
assonance.

 

Many
people view the poetry of Emily Dickinson differently. Some people think that
Emily Dickinson was one of America’s greatest poets. On the other hand, some
people criticize her poetry for being strange and too hard to understand. Her
poems are also criticizes for other things; it all depends on the critic. A
critical review by R. P. Blackmur criticizes the writings of Emily Dickinson.

       R.
P. Blackmur opens his paper by saying, “There is no doubt that critics are
justified in complaining that her work is often cryptic in thought and
unmelodious in expression. Almost all of her poems are written in short
measures, in which the effect of curt brevity is increased by her verbal
penuriousness” (Blackmur). Emily Dickinson’s poems are all very short and her
poetry definitely has her own style. The simplicity can be seen in many of
Emily Dickinson’s poem. “Cocoon” is the example poem Blackmur shows
in his paper. “Cocoon” is a very simple poem, but not all of her
poems are this simple. Emily Dickinson has a lot of poems, and the reader see a
difference in her moods while she was writing her poetry. “Because we
happen to possess full records of her varying poetic moods, published, not with
the purpose of selecting her most artistic work, but with the intention of
revealing very significant human documents, we are not justified in singling
out a few bizarre poems and subjecting these to skeptical scrutiny”
(Blackmur).

Critical Reviews over Emily
Dickinson differ in opinions. Some think she was a great poet and some do not.
R. P. Blackmur thinks she was a great poet and had her own style of writing.
“Passionate fortitude was hers, and this is the greatest contribution her
poetry makes to the reading world.

With
Michael Ryan perspectives,
 There is no information
in Emily Dickinson’s poems that separates her from us. Instead of merely
referring to the experience of the writer, the poem is made to be an
experience for the reader. He would like to have a fraction of her focus: the
most intense focus ever of any writer I know. She is a model of
devotion to the practice of poetry. Writing poems for her was
life-sustaining, even life-creating. It created the place in which she fully
experienced her experience.
 
How
popular was Emily Dickinson?
Roy
Harvey Pearce says, “Emily Dickinson is one of the most widely
read and well known American poets. Dickinson kept her writing, as well as
her writerly intentions, as simple as possible. She is simply and starkly
concerned with being herself and accommodating her view of the world to that
concern.
Did she make a living at
or did she wallow in poverty?
According
to Richard B Sewall’s, “Emily Dickinson gradually apart from
the world and spent much of her life confined in the family home. She helped
with all the work of a large 19th-century household, rising before dawn every
day to make the fires and prepare the family breakfast and looking after the
glasshouse and garden. With her sister Lavinia, she looks after their mother
in her final illness. Emily Dickinson had only a handful of poems published
during her lifetime. After her death she became an overnight sensation. Only
eight poems were published during her lifetime, the rest being circulated in
manuscript form among her friends and family.
 What
impact did their poetry have? 
 According
to sister lavinia of the Amherst Library “Dickinson’s poetry reflects her
loneliness and the speakers of her poems generally live in a state of want,
but her poems are also marked by the intimate recollection of inspirational
moments which are decidedly life-giving and suggest the possibility of
happiness. The people with whom she did come in contact, however, had an
enormous impact on her thoughts and poetry.”
 Great
achievements?  
According
to Esther Lombardi,
“Emily Dickinson contributed a great deal to the world of literature. With
the extra time being isolated in her room, gave her more then just time to
write and reflect. Dickinson had a unique perspective on life, death, love, nature, and
friendship. She didn’t need titles. Her lines spoke volumes”.
 
 What
books were the most popular?
 Collected
Poems Of Emily Dickinson (hardcover), by Emily Dickinson (Author), Mabel Loomis Todd (Editor), T.W. Higginson (Editor).  Poems: Second Series was published in 1891 and ran to
five editions bye 1893; a third series was published in 1895 of Dickinson’s
letters.