(Suryyanarayan Ray, 2011) In the opinion of
most of the respondents, the mere obtaining ISO 9000 Certification is not
enough to make their companies competitive globally. So, the immediate reason
for adoption of Total Quality Management practices in India is that Indian
companies need to go beyond ISO 9000 Certification by adopting Total Quality
Management practices that are prevalent in the rest of the world. Though most
of the respondent Indian companies are ISO 900 Certified, they do not think it
is enough to make them competitive globally, though most of them believe that
ISO 900 Standards can act as foundation of TQM in companies. Foreign
Collaboration has a positive impact on management practices and Total Quality
Management activities in Indian companies, as it gives an opportunity for
Indian companies to imbibe the best Total Quality Management practices from the
leading exponents of Total Quality Management practices in the world. Customer Satisfaction
and Continual Improvement is the focus of the mission of the Indian companies.
The Corporate Objectives of Indian companies centers around Customer
Satisfaction and Quality of Products/Services. From these facts, it can be concluded
that the main elements of a Total Quality Management in India are Customer
Satisfaction, Continual Improvement and Quality of Products/Services of a
company. However, several misconceptions about Total Quality Management exists
which run contrary to the stated Mission and Strategy of Indian companies. Most
of the respondents are aware of the importance of addressing the implied needs
of their customers. At the same time, most of them are aware of TQM being a
comprehensive long-term approach. However, most of the respondent Indian
companies have failed to recognize their important roles in the discharge of
CSR. The employees of a company are the internal customers of a company. Thus,
to fulfill the basic tenets of TQM philosophy, Indian companies must take into
account the welfare and well-being of their employees and workers. Only if they
are satisfied, teamwork will prevail. After all, teamwork is one of the basic
pillars of TQM. India has a large population and Indian companies have a large
workforce. So, Indian companies must take care of its Social Responsibilities.
It has been found that the respondent Indian companies often lack incorporating
Social Responsibility in their mission; vision and strategy the analysis of the
research data also suggest that in some aspects TQM practices in India are not
satisfactory, particularly in relation to Six Sigma and Market Research. Thus,
it can be said that there are several barriers to implementation of Total
Quality Management like unsatisfactory educational profile of management
personnel, poor participation of workers in management, limiting Human Resource
Management responsibility to a single department, low average man-days 161
devoted to training of employees, lack of proper partnership development with the
different stakeholders, low Corporate Social Responsibility, inadequate
Research and Development Venture with Universities and Colleges, inadequate use
of Six Sigma, lack of proper Market Research, and so on. TQM has important
repercussions on HRM, workers’ participation in management, and especially on
the top management. Total Quality Management implementation is possible only
through top management commitment. In India, often, there is lack of top
management support for Total Quality Management. From the responses, it is
evident that most of the respondent Indian companies do not encourage workers’
participation in the management of the company. As a result, the upward
communication chain is broken and the management-employee interface is not
completely fruitful. This hampers the team spirit of Indian companies and act
as a barrier to TQM. Government companies do more to discharge their Corporate
Social Responsibility as they are pledged to contribute at least 4% of their
Net Profits annually. Similar commitment is awaited from the private sector.
Many respondent Indian companies do not have joint Research and Development
Venture with Universities and Colleges. This acts as an obstacle to more
fruitful Research and Development work which could have been used to synergize
and develop power and technology that could be subsequently transferred back to
Industry. Many respondent Indian companies tend to think of quality as a part
of Total Cost of a company. Most Indian companies have inadequate Six Sigma and
Marker Research activities. The concept of JIT and Zero defects are still not
clear to most of the respondent companies. From all these, we can conclude that
the development status of Total Quality Management in India is not up to the
mark. Total Quality Management has repercussions on all the management areas of
162 the company, be it in production or operation or personnel or cost or
marketing or research/planning or human resource development. To overcome all
the obstacles and barriers, TQM strategies need to be developed in different
operational areas. Like in production, Six Sigma and Kaizen needed to improve
efficiency and reduce job time that are often lacking in Indian companies. In
operation management, the top management must shape the strategy and the
supervisors should take tactical decisions for more efficient use of company
resources and effectiveness in meeting customer requirements. More trained
supervisors with more exposure to modern Total Quality Management practices
like Benchmarking, Poka-Yoke and Quality Circles are also the need of the hour.
Among the sample companies, not all companies employ Quality Circle or PokaYoke
activities. These value-added activities must be aligned to marketing
management where the orientation is towards the needs and wants of customers.
Here also, Indian companies do not always invest in adequate marketing
research. In human resource development, Indian companies need to enlarge the
responsibility of the human resource management to rest of the departments of
the company. A few suggestions are put forward for improvement of the
prevailing scenario