Research Problem/Title of the
study
“A
study on the Impact of counterfeit brands on consumer’s acceptance of
original brands in the Indian context”
 

Literature reviewed (n
= 7)

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Title of the study

Objective of the study

Research questions

Gaps the study is talking about

Methodology
(Sample,
size, sampling technique, geographical location, statistical tools and
techniques etc.)

Key findings and implications of
the study

Limitations and future research
directions

Attitude and Purchase Intention
Towards Counterfeit Products: An Enquiry among Consumers in India

To understand the attitude of consumers
towards counterfeits and its effect on their purchase intention. The model of
Michaelidou and Christodoulides (2011) are relooked from a fast-developing
country (India) perspective, whose culture is fundamentally different from
the West.

·       
Product variety
available within the counterfeit market.
·       
Price
Consciousness
·       
Perceived Risk
·       
Ethical
Obligation
·       
Attitude and
Purchase Intention

Counterfeit brands are identical
to legitimate products, which are made so as to deceive consumers into believing
that they are original products. In the context of the study, counterfeiting
is classified into two major types deceptive and non-deceptive.

Independent samples were drawn
from among the 300 respondents. Most (75 %) of the buyers are income earners while
the remaining are dependent children from such families.
The sample means are drawn from a
single population.
Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to analyze.

50% of all respondents (among 300)
who actually purchased were also classified as those with high purchase
intention (PI). For the remaining 50% when their purchase intention (PI) was
enquired, they were willing to gather more market information relating to
comparable prices offered in the regular (genuine) discount market.
 

As the sample size was limited to three
hundred actual shoppers at the grey market the model comparison across two
different product categories was not possible. The influence of online
counterfeit product sales and its impact on genuine product sales and its distribution
is another area to be explored. There are ample evidences to prove that many
leading online sellers are knowingly or unknowingly facilitating the sale of
counterfeits. Auto components, electronic accessories, mobile phones and peripherals,
pirated software, counterfeit drug and other pharmaceutical products can also
be included in separate studies. The impact of deceptive and non-deceptive
counterfeit products can also be studied.

Counterfeits
and branded products: effects of counterfeit ownership

To investigate
impacts of counterfeit branded products (CBP) ownership on branded products
(BP) and to
explore
determinants of CBP purchase intention of both CBP owners and CBP non-owners.

·       
What is the difference between consumers’ perceptions of
CBP and BP?
·       
How CBP ownership alter consumers’ perceptions of BP?
·       
If consumers’ perceptions of CBP influence their CBP
purchase intention?
·       
Will CBP ownership interact with perceptions of CBP in
determining CBP purchase intention?

·       
Examines the impact of CBP
on its counterpart BP from both brand and product perspective.
·       
Focuses on how CBP
ownership alters consumers’ perceptions of CBP/BP and thereafter the purchase
intention of CBP.

·       
Discussions of Four focus group
·       
Conducted a quantitative survey of 430 adults in Glasgow,
UK.
·       
Measured consumers’ brand perceptions of
o  
CBP and BP
o  
CBP non-deceptive ownership
o  
CBP purchase intention.

Consumers were found
to have more favorable perceptions of BP than CBP, with exceptions of
financial risk and security concerns.
Significant
perception differences concerning CBP were identified between CBP owners and
non-owners. In contrast, CBP ownership had no significant
effect on consumers’
evaluations of BP. Several perception dimensions appeared to be significantly
influential on CBP behavioral intention, with brand
personality playing
the dominant role. Evidence of an interaction effect of CBP ownership with
consumers’ perceptions of CBP on CBP purchase
intention
did not exist.

Still too early to
draw a conclusion if Counterfeit Branded Products does not have a direct
impact on the brand image of Branded Products, in spite of the clarity on both
CBP-prone consumers and BP’s superior features.

Attitudes
toward counterfeit products and counterfeit purchase intention in non-
deceptive counterfeiting: role of conspicuous consumption, integrity and
personal gratification
 

Study
the effects of conspicuous consumption, integrity and personal gratification,
on consumers’ attitude and behavioral intentions toward counterfeits
 

·       
Consumers conspicuous consumption will affect their
attitude toward counterfeits?
·       
Consumers integrity will affect their attitude toward
counterfeits?
·       
Consumers personal gratification will affect their
attitude toward counterfeits?
·       
Consumer`s attitudes toward counterfeit products affects
behavioral intention of buying?
 
 

·       
Focuses on the demand side of non- deceptive
counterfeiting where consumers intentionally purchase counterfeits.
·       
Influence of selected factors on a consumer’s willingness
to knowingly purchase counterfeit goods.
 
 

·       
To examine the relationship between dependent and
independent variables research hypotheses were proposed. 300 questionnaires
were distributed to respondent as a test sample and 276 questionnaires were
found to be usable in data analysis. Collected data were tested using SPSS 17
and Amos 18 software programs.
·       
First, the measurement model was tested and then the
structural model was estimated by using Structural Equation Modeling.
 
 

The
findings indicated that conspicuous consumption has significant effect on
attitude toward counterfeit products (ATCP) and the, integrity has negative
significant effect on it. Besides personal gratification has significant
effect on consumers’ attitude toward counterfeit products. On the other hand,
the findings state that attitudes toward counterfeit products, has
significant effect on purchase intention.
 

·       
The sample was selected in the streets and places close
to the points where counterfeited products were being sold.
·       
Limited number of independent variables.
·       
It is possible to conduct this study with some changes
and adjustment, to enhance the generalization of the research.
 
 

Factors
Influencing Consumer’s Intention to Buy Counterfeit Products
 

Six
primary factors that influence counterfeit purchase have been identified and
the TRA has been applied to investigate the impact of these factors on
consumer behavioral patterns
 

How
the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) could help identify the factors
responsible for influencing behavioral intentions of a consumer towards
purchasing counterfeit products.
 
 

·       
A potential gap in the reported literature is that every
research group mentioned has proposed a different set of primary factors
influencing the purchase of counterfeits.
·       
A unified quantitative approach to determine and rank the
factors influencing counterfeit purchase intention is yet to be developed.
 
 
 
 

·       
Mathematical ‘covariate interactions’ analysis as well as
a Chi-square regression analysis.
·       
Logistic regression analysis was run on the survey
results that yielded a mathematical expression which can predict how likely a
customer is to buy a counterfeit.
 
 

·       
The ‘influence of society’ and ‘value for money’ have
been identified as the top two reasons that motivate consumers to buy fake
products based on a survey conducted.
·       
The proposed correlation matches the obtained survey data
very well.
·       
Brand preferences and purchase of duplicate products vary
from market-to-market based on economic status and availability of
counterfeits.
 
 

·       
This study and the reported literature that it refers to
are subjective, because they comprise opinions of people.
·       
These opinions are influenced by demographical
preferences, geographic locations, and environmental conditions that vary
across different regions and countries.
·       
The conclusion of study is limited to type-of-product
studies.
·       
The present work is an ‘Analysis-led-Concept’ study and
there prevails immense scope for future research in the area of counterfeits
spanning a wide gamut of products.
 
 

Consumer
orientation towards counterfeit fashion products: A qualitative analysis

·       
To deepen the understanding of consumer psyche
·       
To explore consumer attitudes and intentions with respect
to purchase of counterfeit fashion products.

What are the reasons
that motivate consumers to buy counterfeit products?
 

·       
Counterfeiting acting as a flourishing industry
altogether.
·       
In some transactions, consumers are deceived and wrongly
believe that they are purchasing the legitimate branded product
 

A total of 25 in-depth
interviews were conducted among people of all age-groups, backgrounds &
professions. The interviews were recorded, analyzed, inputs were
noted
and conclusions were arrived at.

·       
The first construct refers to personal aspects including status
consciousness, value consciousness, brand consciousness, uniqueness seeking
and novelty seeking.
·       
The second-dimension rests on interpersonal aspects of
consumption of counterfeit fashion products related to susceptibility to
interpersonal pressures.

·       
The limitation of this study is the sample size, which
was not large enough to draw strong conclusions.
·       
Future research can be taken up with a larger sample, and
by applying quantitative techniques. One can explore more factors, both
economic and non-economic, that play a pivotal role in purchase decisions
related to knockoffs.

Impact
of Counterfeit Products on Consumer Buying Behavior

To
investigate the factors which usually affect the buying behavior of the
consumers and also study their attitudes towards counterfeit products.

What are the reason
for usage of counterfeit brands among the people?

·       
Counterfeit products provide the exact replicas of
branded products with usually confuses consumer.
·       
Consideration of only three factors of counterfeit brands
i.e. Symbolic status, Distribution channel of retailers and price.

·       
Sample size is 100 and response rate was 76%.
·       
Regression model was used to analyze the impact of
independent variable i.e. Consumer Buying Behavior on dependent variable i.e.
Counterfeit Products.
·       
Questionnaire with 12 questions was floated to
institutions in Karachi city, Pakistan.

·       
Consumer buying behavior have a significant relationship
with counterfeit brands. -If the counterfeit products increase by 1% then the
consumer buying behavior will increase by 69.7%.
·       
Producers of branded products should bring innovation to
distinguish their products.

·       
The sample size which was too small i.e. 100
 
·       
The data collected through the convenient sampling
technique and targeted only some institutions of Karachi city.

Modeling
of determinants influence in consumer behavior towards counterfeit fashion
products

To
investigate factors that influences consumers’ attitudes toward non-
deceptive counterfeit fashion products and behavioral intention to purchase
them.

What
are the factors that influence purchasing of counterfeit fashion products by
the consumer and up to what extend?

·       
Investment in research and development (R&D) is
placed at risk from the unfair competition generated by counterfeit products.
Despite the importance of this phenomenon, there is lack of understanding of
the factors that may influence customers to buy counterfeit products.
·       
While the supply side of counterfeiting has received a
considerable attention in the literature, investigations focusing on the
demand side are still scarce.

·       
Sample of 300 respondents
·       
Sample data is collected from Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
·       
Qualitative approach was also used with 20 people before
collecting data from questionnaire.
·       
Exploratory factor analysis was used to analyze the
responses.
 
 

·       
Brand image has positively associated with personal
appearance but doesn’t hold strong relationship with counterfeit brands.
·       
Social influence has significant impact on the attitude
towards counterfeits fashion product.
·       
Personal gratification is negatively associated with the
attitude towards counterfeits fashion products.

·       
Data collected only focused on people who have already
purchased counterfeit products.
·       
The sample size which was too small i.e. 300