Mohit Saluja

School of Construction

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RICS School of Built Environment

Gurgaon, HR, India

[email protected]

 

Abstract

Whenever we address India, the Initial thought one can come up with is the population of this country which is going to surpass the China’s population in 2024 and is projected to touch 1.5 Billion; said by UN Official. It is anticipated that India will be the highest populous country along with the fastest growing economy in the world but despite of economic opportunity, India’s infrastructure is very crumbling. India’s immense population makes it terribly vulnerable once it involves water shortage and scarceness. 

 

Concerning 330 million individuals within the country currently suffer from regular water shortage problems. India’s economy is basically captivated with its agriculture. Water shortage and drought not solely impact on the agricultural districts but also have a calamitous effect on inflation and economic progress.

With a mission to make India Smart, it requires Smart Minds who actively participate in governance and Promote Smart Building Management Systems through Integration, Information and Innovation. Building the foundation of Smart Water is the Need of the Hour and Even the Purpose of this Paper. A Smart Water Network is not simply an Individual System that Optimizes a Network’s Efficiencies but rather a means of linking together Multiple Systems within a Network to share data across Platforms.

 

Analyzing Water with Data Base Management System and Internet of Things to Measure Operations and Financial Controls Intelligently, Zero Percent Wastage, Improve Revenue and Efficiency by means of Advance Metering Infrastructure, Automatic Distribution, Leakage Management, Disaster and Emergency Preparedness, Pressure Regulation & Smart Grid Analytics.

Keywords: Advance Metering Infrastructure, Automatic Distribution, Leakage Management, Disaster and Emergency Preparedness, Pressure Regulation, Smart Grid Analytics

Introduction

Water is coming gradually to an alarming situation on the planet. Earth is loaded with water yet 99 percent of water is in the ocean which is salty consequently can’t be utilized. Others sources are secured ice sheet in ice frame consequently just 1% of water is accessible in groundwater and surface waters for human survival. Changes in the natural condition like low precipitation, atmosphere changes make water scarcer. Water assets like waterway lakes are contracting gradually. Water management has turned out to be significant issues in numerous nations. Notwithstanding to drink purposes. More than 800 million individuals don’t have access to clean water for drinking. UN in recently has pronounced water and sanitation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

as fundamental human rights. More than 2 billion of individuals don’t have proper sanitation facilities. It is also analyzed that almost 2 billion individuals till next rot will live in territories having completely shortage. With populace shut everything down 12 billion till 2050. This will expand the demand of water and other needs such as food by half at that point.

 

India is a land of agriculture. Here 70% of water is being used for the horticultural reason. It was normal that water demand will ascend by half and one can’t be disregarding the way that India is as of now under high-feeling of anxiety. Just in India and, China 2.7 billion individuals live in water shortage. In India adequate water assets are accessible yet water is unevenly dispersed. There is the situation in which just a single tap is introduced for 100s of slum population and one tap for one house. Water Infrastructure exhibit in numerous urban communities was very maturing. This maturing pipeline experiences disintegration which eventually causing water spillages. General mindfulness in individuals with respect to water saving was additionally not found. Causing water waster consequently brings about additional water usages. Countries like India physical and business misfortune are the significant zone to work out. That can be lessened.

 

NEED OF INNOVATION IN WATER MANAGEMENT

 

There is obviously an incremental speculation required to convey a smart water metering framework. Notwithstanding the meter modules, forthright cost items include communications infrastructure, data management applications and a scope of extra innovation to help the substantial volume of information, middleware and informing programming that might be expected to handle communications between applications and alerts to and from field devices. This cost remains as a hindrance to smart water meter endeavors, as proved by the reality cost recuperation and degree of profitability (46%) and in advance, utility costs (42%) were considered by North American utility chiefs to be the signature requirement in actualizing such undertakings. Per unit metering costs differ extraordinarily and rely upon venture scale, prior foundation, and sort of innovation sent. While the wide range of stages restrain the legitimacy of general assessments, expenses of activities attempted in North America in the course of the most recent decade have tended to fall amongst $US150 and $US300 per introduced module (counting establishment, interchanges framework and application costs). Demonstrative unit costs for a brilliant meter contrasted with a simple (‘imbecilic’) meter are in the request of USD30 and USD60, individually. As far as payback periods or degrees of profitability, of the few assumes that have been openly cited, payback periods in North American and Australian cases have had a tendency to be in the scope of 3 to 15 years.

 

Asia is home to very nearly 60% of the total populace yet has just 36% of water resources. In Asia, around 29 million cubic meters of water have lost which cost around 9 billion $ every year. As per the report by World Water Development Report 480 million of people in Asia alone will face water scarcity. According to Asian Development Bank, it is expected that water demand will be double as compared to present till 2025.

 

Coordinating a Smart Water Network is an incredible route for utilities to give new life to speculations they have effectively made. Most Water utilities have established their fundamental frameworks in the two resources and innovation and have moved their concentration to utilize these consumptions in the facilities they have set up.

The introduction of Smart Water Networks is the utilization of data innovation to upgrade a utility’s ability. The initial step for a water utility to push toward actualizing a Smart Water Network is to build up its needs to improve effectiveness. At that point, assess the data accessible and distinguish which bits of information are missing and could be accomplished by incorporating existing IT foundation. With this data, the utility will be prepared to design new speculations to fill in the innovation gaps.

 

The three mainstays of Smart Water Networks:

·         Information: making full utilization of all information delivered by a water utility

·         Integration: using current IT frameworks to expand past ventures

·         Innovation: having the adaptability to address future difficulties

 

A Smart Water Network isn’t just an individual framework that streamlines a system’s efficiencies yet rather a method for connecting together various frameworks inside a system to share information crosswise over stages. Considering a significant number of the regular difficulties confronting utilities, including leak management, control compliances and regulations and client benefit, utilities can enhance execution by coordinating frameworks in a way that pinpoints particular issue zones.

By tending to the gaps in the accessible data, a utility can precisely set objectives, design speculations, and unravel some of its greatest difficulties.

Real-Time Data Integration

There are fundamental levels of Smart Water Network reconciliation that will give utilities relatively immediate advantages. One particular ability that can rapidly pay profits is changing real-time data into significant data for the quick decision making in zones of the utility outside of the control room. By moving data out of the control room, utility administrators can remain mindful of what is happening in the field constantly and react rapidly and fittingly when an issue emerges.

 

Monitoring continuous information enhances support techniques in light of the fact that the framework is consequently creating data as event occur. For instance, when there is a defective bit of gear or when a pipe releases, utility chiefs can dispatch groups promptly to the correct spot of the incident with particular data for that kind of hardware.

 

Utilizing a propelled GIS framework to send groups to the correct spot of the incident additionally cuts labor costs. Utilities can significantly diminish the time between when an incident happens and when the issue is settled, in this way lessening the hazard and the cost related to that occasion.

 

Notwithstanding enhancing reaction times, connecting real-time information from the field has likewise demonstrated basic for building the exact water powered models that utilities use to think about what ought to occur in the field with what is really happening. By performing on the web reenactments, utility administrators have an intense apparatus that enables them to build up an exact benchmark to measure their system’s operational proficiency

 

FIGURE 1: SMART METERING PROCESS

Enhancing Customer Satisfaction

Having an adaptable framework enables utilities to precisely set future destinations. Bringing in information from client data frameworks into the SCADA framework enables utilities to pick up a more exact perspective of generation versus utilization.

This enables utilities to build up a water balance and put forward advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) objectives in view of key performance indicators (KPI). Additionally, by connecting water driven model simulation with the client data framework, utilities can speak with clients all the more precisely about when – and to what extent – their administration will be hindered for maintenance and support exercises.

Precisely Forecasting Demand

Utilities depend on authentic information to make a demand-supply curve so they can legitimately adjust their production to guarantee they are working at peak efficiency. However, by utilizing an AMI framework, that procedure can be computerized so pumping regimens can be adjusted to more precisely fill the demand-supply gap. AMI still isn’t as generally utilized as a part of the water business as it is in the energy sector, in spite of the fact that its capacity to streamline demand curve to set more precise edges will without a doubt be one of the principle bits of the baffle that will enable utilities to upgrade their creation and operations later on.

 

While utilities are monitoring water demand they additionally should be aware of the energy they are expending all through their own framework. By utilizing this System to track the water demand, utilities can program pumps to address the issues for particular circumstances of the day, saving both water and energy.

Water utilities around the world are faced with the challenges of giving a high level of services for clients while working in a way that is proficient and beneficial for the association. Numerous utilities have discovered that implementing artificial intelligence and advanced IT arrangements is a powerful method for striking the harmony between meeting the quality norms clients anticipate and augmenting assets will gather an exceptional ROI.

SMART WATER METERS

Smart water metering refers to a framework that measures water utilization or reflection and conveys that data in a robotized design for observing and charging purposes. Smart meters contrast from traditional meters in that they measure utilization in more prominent detail also, transmit that data back to the service provider without the requirement for manual readings.

 

Smart metering systems can be designed from multiple points of view, and when extensively characterized, the term incorporates both Automated Meter Reading (AMR) and Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) frameworks. AMR alludes to any framework that permits computerized gathering of meter peruses (for the most part by radio transmission), without the requirement for physical assessment. AMI is utilized to depict a framework that includes two-path correspondence with a water meter. That is, water utilization data is transmitted to utilities, while utilities can thus issue charges to water meters to attempt particular capacities. Throughout the last decade, most smart water meter arrangements around the globe have been AMR frameworks, notwithstanding due to their extra usefulness, the industry is beginning to move towards AMI and ‘shrewd lattice’ arrangements. Notwithstanding of the arrangement, all keen metering frameworks comprise of three primary components: (an) estimation; (b) correspondence; (c) programming application.

 

Smart water metering is encountering solid development all through the industrialized world with the annual growth projections shifting in the vicinity of 15% and 20% until 2017. By 2015 smart meters are relied upon to represent half of the worldwide water meter showcase, with a market size of around USD900 million. Up to this point smart water metering ventures have been embraced primarily in Europe and North America.

 

Activities change extraordinarily in the measure from little provincial towns with less than 1000 associations with substantial urban areas, for example, New York and Mumbai which serve up to 1 million associations. Over the past decade Boston, District of Columbia, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, Atlanta, Chicago, and Detroit have all embraced major AMR ventures. Substantial tasks are too at present in progress in New York, Kuwait, Malta, and Toronto. While brilliant water meter organizations have been amassed in created districts, late tasks in Mumbai what’s more, Dar es Salaam show creating nations may figure all the more conspicuously in the coming years. Essentially, keen metering organizations are starting to tailor items to developing business sector needs, for example, Elster’s keen standpipe arrangement.

 

Smart water metering offers a scope of advantages when contrasted with traditional water metering. These include:

 

Faster and more effective meter reading
Theft and leak detection
Greater billing accuracy
Enabling an adaptable duty structure
Increased read recurrence, bringing about enhanced obligation gathering
Ability to remotely monitor resources use

 

 

 

DATA ANALYTICS FROM QUESTIONNAIRE

(Created at QuestionPro)

 

A questionnaire had been developed and floated on various platform of social media consisting 20+ questions on the various usage of water to analyze where do it get mostly waste. And it is highly seen and promoted by the professionals, students, colleagues, friends and family members. It is the data recovered and analyzed nearly from 500 participants and highly appreciated that they took time to fill this questionnaire and concerned about the water and its conservation. I got really amazed to observe the findings from the results. It made me think twice that where is the lag when people are already aware about the causes and actions.

 

Questions are given below:

 

What is the sort of Housing Ownership?

 

                FIGURE 2: GRAPH SHOWING HOUSING OWNERSHIP

 

What is the Age of your Dwelling?

 

              

FIGURE 3: GRAPH SHOWING AGE OF RESIDENT

 

For Personal Hygiene, which one is Majorly Used?

 

FIGURE 4: GRAPH SHOWING HYGIENE USGAE

 

To what extent does each shower last?

 

The result of this question is shocking that 60% of individual answered 20-30 minutes. Only 12% have answered under 10 min which is nearly justified. But this is what I have experienced that people waste more water while bathing or taking showers.

 

What is the bathing and washing recurrence?

 

FIGURE 5: GRAPH SHOWING BATHING RECURRENCE

 

What is the recurrence does family unit go clothing in seven days?

 

Majorly answered once in a three day. Only 27% of individuals do it every day.

 

What is the Major Source of family drinking water?

 

97% is Supply/RO Water and 3% Bottle/Cans

 

What amount of drinking water does your family unit expend every day?

 

Assuming 4 members per family, Major answers are in the range of 25-40 Ltr in Summer and 20-30 Ltr in Winters.  

 

Do your taps spill?

 

31% answered that they suffer leakages and it is also observed that the water supply from municipal corporations faced leakages problems and caused water shortages.

 

 Do you have water meters in the family unit?

 

More than 50% said they don’t have water meters. So, the readings are directly observed and thus bills generated sent to customers by water corporations. Customers don’t have their real time data how much they are using and what do it costs?

 

How frequently is the water meter perused?

 

Few people answered this question that they do check meter readings once a month. Nobody cares about the cost related to water because as compared to all the resources, it is very cheap but the what cost it would be occurring in the future that nobody is thinking.

 

What are the Major Water Using Appliance?

 

FIGURE 6: PARETO ANALYSIS OF WATER APPLIANCE USAGE

 

How is the flow water supply benefit?

 

FIGURE 7: RADAR CHART OF WATER SUPPLY SERVICES

 

What is the normal month to month cost of water in the family unit?

 

All answers are in the range of Rs1000-1500

 

To what extent did the most recent water shortage last?

 

FIGURE 8: PIE CHART OFWATER SHORTAGE IN HOUSEHOLD

 

Is there any water saving measures polished in the family unit?

 

This result surprised me and also gives a large scope of business opportunities to this study. Maybe it has not reached to all the audience or only reached to the targeted audiences but nobody has any kind of technology for water saving purposes. Even I am one of them.

 

Have you at any point seen the purposeful publicity identified with Water Conservation?

 

71% answered that they have experienced and rest never cared about it.

 

 

Do you know What is Smart Water?

 

As expected, nobody knows the concept of Smart Water before this Questionnaire. I am sure many of them are aware now after researching about this terminology. So here also 99% answered that they are not aware of this technique.

 

 

On the off chance that the Govt. offers sponsorships to family units to enhance the current water framework. Would you take an interest?

 

But everybody has answered that they will support the govt. initiatives if they offer sponsorships to families.

 

Have you heard of Artificial Intelligence, IOT, DBMS?

 

61% answered that they are known to these terminologies, 39% don’t.

 

Do you support the innovation diminishing your wastage and use of water?

 

Again, 100% have claimed that they will support the innovations which could reduce the wastages and usage of water.

 

MAJOR FINDINGS FROM THIS DATA

 

Individuals use 90% of their water in all other uses and 10% for drinking, which could be reverse because water is not meant for anything else but drinking.
Washing and Flushing are the major cause of water wastage or usage.
People are aware of the fact that water is a basic need to sustain and conserving it is the need of the hour but they really don’t care about the cause because its cheap, easily available to them or anything else.
Any individuals can’t carry any estimation of water shortage, wastage, usage or can’t figure out the leakage detection and what will be the cost projected regarding their current pace of usage.
Business opportunities for Smart Water is humongous.
Govt. Initiatives (and conference and events like ISGW) creating awareness among very large pool of audiences

References

 

1.       Advantages of Implementing Smart Water Available here: http://www.waterworld.com/articles/print/volume-27/issue-3/editorial-features/water-utility-management-special-section/advantages-of-implementing-smart-water-networks.html

 

2.       World Health Organization. (1992). Report on the WHO commission on health and environment. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.

 

3.       World Health Organization. (1997). Guidelines for drinking water quality: surveillance and control of community supply, Vol. 2 (2nd ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.

 

4.       Colombo, A.F., and Karney, B.W. (2005).”Impacts of leaks on energy consumption in pumped systems with storage”.Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management.131(2): 146-155

 

5.       Farley, M., 2008.Finding ‘difficult’ leaks. International Water Association Specialist Group – Efficient Operation and Management. Available from: http://www.iwaom.org

 

6.       Intelligent water management for your utility,2014. Available from: http://sensus.com/web/usca/solutions/smart-water-network

 

7.       Questionnaire created at QuestionPro available at: http://smartwatersurvey.questionpro.com/