Mitali Solanki1, Arati Sapkal1, Ananya Gawande1 , Sayali Chaudhari1        

S V Athawale1,2

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1 Department of Computer Engineering,

AISSMS College of Engineering,


2Assistant Professor ,Department of Computer Engineering,

AISSMS College of Engineering,Pune


Abstract. In this modern era of fast moving technology we can do things which we could never do before and to do these tasks there is a necessity to build a platform to perform these tasks. The proposed system puts forth the home automation technique for smart plant watering system. A smart phone empowers the user to be updated with their ongoing garden status using IoT from any part of the world. The system uses Node ESP8266 as the microcontroller interfacing unit.

Keywords: Smart Plant watering, MQTT, IoT, Cloud, Soil moisture, Wi-Fi.

1   Introduction

Early stages of home automation began with labor saving machines. Home automation is the way that allows us to network our devices together and provide us immaculate control over all aspects of home. There is an increasing need of automation of tasks in our daily lives .Today people are looking at ways and means to better their lifestyles using the latest technologies as it becomes inevitable to have easy and convenient methods and means to control and operate these appliances.

One of the aspects that this automation focuses is an efficient smart plant watering system. Plants bring a different perspective to our lives and have beneficial aesthetic properties. However maintenance is an important task for plants as too much or too less water can damage and cause harm to the life of plants. For instance when the nursery owner or a garden owner is out of town or away from his garden they fail to take care of the same. The proposed system aims at providing regularized supply of water and status or alerts can be accessed by users from any remote location.

2   Literature Review

In OO Design for an IoT based Automated Plant Watering System 1, the system ensures that plants are watered at regular interval, with appropriate amount, whenever they are in need. And the system explained is, soil moisture sensor checks the moisture level in the soil. Then if moisture level is below certain limit, a signal is to the pump to start pumping water to plants and sets timer to required watering duration. In this paper 2, soil moisture sensor uses the principle of inverse relation between soil moisture and soil resistance. If the resistance is more, then moisture is less. In this system, Bluetooth is used for communication and it is not used for longer distances so this is the drawback. This paper 3, introduces smart irrigation system. It allows interfacing the farming and the communications and control systems. This system uses GSM module for sensing of data and sends it to database server. SMSs are sent to the mobile phone hence this system is not smart and used only for short ranges.

In Wireless Sensor and Actuator System for Smart Irrigation on the Cloud 4, cloud based systems are used. System proposes a cloud based wireless sensor and actuator network communication system. It monitors and controls a set of sensors, to access plant water needs. The communication protocol used in this system is Zigbee.

In Automated Water Usage Monitoring System 5, concept of Internet of things is used to monitor and track the water usage via various sensor nodes. Wi-Fi or LAN is used to send data to LabVIEW model. LabVIEW software acts as a server to control and monitor data. Server collects the data through Wi-Fi/LAN to process and track usage and wastage of water at every outlet. The user can continuously keep a track of the water usage or wastage through a mobile with an internet connection. In paper6,it describes the design and implementation of an automatic water sprinkler system for a farmland which monitors and controls a water sprinkler. This system reduces waste of water and saves time. This paper 7 introduces IoT crop-field monitoring using sensors like soil moisture, humidity, light, temperature and automates the irrigation system. This system is used in green houses and power consumption is reduced.

In Agricultural Crop Monitoring using IoT- A Study 8, IoT technology helps in collecting information about conditions like weather, moisture, temperature and fertility, Crop online monitoring enables detection of weed, level of water, pest detection, animal intrusion in to the field, crop growth, agriculture. This paper 9, introduces a framework called AgriTech.It consists of smart devices, wireless sensor network and internet. Smart mobile phones are used to automate the agricultural processes. This paper 10 describes smart wireless home security system and home automation system. This system uses microcontroller TI-CC3200 Launchpad board and onboard Wi-Fi shield. In A Low Cost Smart Irrigation System Using MQTT Protocol 11, it tries to design a simple water pump controller using soil moisture sensor and ESP8266 NodeMCU-12E. A Message Queue Telemetry Transport protocol (MQTT) is used for transmitting and receiving sensor information. A mobile application is developed and the soil moisture sensor data and water pump status is displayed on a mobile application.

3   Proposed System

The main objective of the proposed system is to implement and design a cost effective smart home automated system. It mainly is an implementation of IoT for remotely controlling home application of watering the plants. The system includes both hardware and software in which the hardware is the embedded system and software include an Android application as well as a dashboard. A low cost Wi-Fi module ESP8266 is used. Both soil related as well as environment related sensors are used. Soil sensors like moisture sensors continuously monitor the moisture in the soil. If the moisture level in the soil is less the water pump is started. Ultrasonic distance sensors monitor the water level in the water tank. The data collected by these sensors is sent to the server .The server uses approximate values on which the system runs. A protocol named Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) is used for establishing a connection in unreliable networks. It helps in connecting the system to the application even when the user is in a remote location.





 Fig. 1. System architecture




The system works as follows. The soil moisture level is checked by the sensors along with the ultrasonic sensor checking the water level in the water tank. These sensors are connected to two different NodeMCUs. These NodeMCUs collect information and send that data to the cloud server. Various analysis are performed on the data and an appropriate value is sent to the user .If the moisture level is less it is notified to the user and upon instruction one of the NodeMCUs starts the 5V relay which in turn starts the system and provides water to the plants.


3.1 Software and Hardware Interface

3.1.1 Software components


Arduino IDE: It is open-source Arduino Software (IDE).It contains the text editor for writing a code and connects to the hardware to upload the programs and communicate with them.


3.1.2 Hardware components


ESP8266 Node MCU: On-chip integration with sensors and other applications.

ESP 8266 is a wi-fi microchip.

It has microcontroller capability and TCP/IP stack.

It has 16 GPIO pins.


2CH Relay: 2-Channel Relay used for controlling higher current load.

2CH Relay board is a 5V 2-channel relay interface board.Various appliances and gadgets with large current are control by 2-Channel relay module.


Ultrasonic Distance Sensor: Used for measuring water level in the tank.

Ultrasonic sensor is a sensor which is used to sense or measure the distance to an object by using sound waves.These are self-contained solid-state devices which are designed for non-contact sensing of solid and liquid objects. They are used for monitoring the level of water in a tank.


Soil Moisture Sensor: Used to read the moisture content values from the soil.

Moisture sensor senses the water level in the soil.It estimates volumetric water content from the soil.

4   Methodology

The sensors check for the moisture level in the soil. If the moisture is found out to be deficient, then the water tank level is checked. If that amount is satisfactory then the relay is turned on which further will turn on the fountain pump. The fountain pump will help water the plants and notify the user accordingly. If the water level in the tank is less then user will be notified to refill the tank. Once the soil moisture reaches to the expected level, the system will stop. If the soil moisture level is not satisfied, the fountain will be turned on again and plants will be watered till the desirable moisture level is reached.




Fig. 2. Flow chart of the system

4.1   Formulas

Displayed equation represents the threshold determined for the soil moisture and water level status,

TM = MC + WL



 TM  – Threshold moisture level value which is required for soil.

 MC  – Current moisture level of soil.

 WL  –  Water level required to reached threshold value.


If the threshold falls below certain level then the user will be alerted to check the water level in tank and start the pump.

5   Results

This section we represent the sensor data in form of graphs. The first graph represents values of soil moisture as well as water level of present systems. The second graph represents the values of sensors of the system proposed in this paper .







The systems which are present (Fig. 1) show inconsistency in levels of water as compared to the moisture ,as plants require the appropriate water taking moisture in consideration. The system presented in this paper (Fig. 2)makes use of continuous moisture levels with respect to time thereby providing the most appropriate levels of water. Our system will reduce the inconsistency present in the moisture and water flow level.




6   Conclusion and Further Direction


Upon understanding how automation works as well as its benefits and issues, it is quite interesting to look forward to how the project can be implemented in real world. Internet of Things is going to be a major part of our lives in the up-coming years. In the Literature review various features in plants were monitored using technologies like GSM, ZigBee, Bluetooth, etc. and had its drawbacks. The proposed system has tried to overcome these drawbacks. This system when integrated in smart home automation system will be very useful for the users who will be able to monitor their system from remote location. The system asks the user to take action and gives the control to them.

               In future work the system can be integrated to take timely actions on its own based on the predictions. The existing system can be implemented for larger datasets of large scale applications like agriculture can big farms.





The authors would like to thank the reviewers for their suggestions and remarks for improving the paper content. We also extend our gratitude to the guide and mentor

Prof. S. V. Athawale for sharing his wisdom and providing an insight that assisted the project.


1.  Shrinidhi Rajagopal and Vallidevi Krishnamurthy, “OO Design for an IoT based Automated Plant Watering System” IEEE International Conference on Computer, Communication, and Signal Processing.

2.  Abdullah Na, William Isaac, Shashank Varshney, Ekram Khan, “An IoT Based System for Remote Monitoring of Soil Characteristics”, 2016 International Conference on Information Technology.

3. Audace Byishimo and Aminata A. Garba, “Designing a Farmer Interface for Smart Irrigation in Developing Countries”, ACM.

4. Nelson Sales, Orlando Remdios,Artur Arsenio, “Wireless Sensor and Actuator System for Smart Irrigation on the Cloud”, IEEE 2015.

5. Sajith Saseendran, V.Nithya, “Automated Water Usage Monitoring System”, International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing, April 6-8, 2016, India.

6. Ale Daniel T., Ogunti E. O., Orovwiroro Daniela, “Development of a Smart Irrigation System”, International Journal of Science and Engineering Investigations vol. 4, issue 45, October 2015.

7. Rajalakshmi.P. and Mrs.S.Devi Mahalakshmi, “IOT Based Crop-Field Monitoring And Irrigation Automation”.

8.  Dr. D.K. Sreekantha, Kavya.A.M, “Agricultural Crop Monitoring using IOT- A Study”, 2017 11th International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Control (ISCO).

9. Arindam Giri,Subrata Dutta,Sarmistha Neogy, “Enabling Agricultural Automation to Optimize Utilization of Water, Fertilizer and Insecticides by implementing Internet of Things (IoT)”, 2016 International Conference on Information Technology(InCITe).

10. Ravi Kishore Kodali, Vishal Jain, Suvadeep Bose and Lakshmi Boppana, “IoT Based Smart Security and Home Automation System”, International Conference on Computing, Communication and Automation (ICCCA2016).

11. Ravi Kishore Kodali and Borade Samar Sarjerao, “A Low Cost Smart Irrigation System Using MQTT Protocol”, 2017 IEEE Region 10 Symposium (TENSYMP).