psychological and social factors may have long lasting effects on patient’s physical
and mental wellbeing. Particularly, personality changes were commonly reported
in patients with epilepsy. It was estimated that 30-70% of the
epileptic patients had comorbid anxiety and/or depression1,2 and
higher incidence rate was found in both hospital-based and community-based

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Depression, panic and anger considered as one of the indicators of
epileptic seizure and existence of any indicator had effect on the proper diagnosis
and management of epileptic seizure and psychological disorder.4 Seo
at al. study to explore the prevalence of aggression and associated factors
found a higher physical and verbal aggression in patients with uncontrolled
epilepsy.5 Another study reported the prevalence of anger in epilepsy patients.6
Although studies reported prevalence of aggression in epileptic patients
however, the effect of aggression is yet not clearly understood. In addition, frequent complaints of frustration with regards to
academic pursuit, personal goals, effective
communication and relationship with closed ones were common in epileptic patients than others.7 Moreover, young
patients reported high level of parental confrontation, relationship problems with
siblings and peers, low academic achievement, low self-concept and pressures.8,9
The factors effecting self-concept of epileptic patients
in relation to academic achievement though require more exploration.10

In non-Western culture, limited work has been done on the factors like
the psychological traits in epilepsy. The impact of mood disorders on epilepsy
is well recognized and has considerable effect on patients’ quality of life and competencies11 however its association with seizure12,13 and etiology14
is not established and several issues are remained debatable.

This study was conducted to assess the psychological traits and its association with different
type of seizures in adult epilepsy. This research
will be beneficial to the health care providers and community workers in the
management of patients with epilepsy who are in need. It will guide them in the
development of skills require to handle cases more professionally and in
preparation of strategies particularly to improve patients’ psychological
wellbeing including self-awareness and motivation. After reviewing the
literature, it was hypothesized that mean scores of epileptic patients on trait
anxiety, achievement, dominance and aggression will be significantly higher than
non-epileptic patients.