Introduction

 

Mindfulness in the past decade has enjoyed a huge
surge in its popularity, whether in popular press or in the psychotherapy
literature  (Didonna, 2009a; Shapiro
& Carlson, 2009).

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Mindfulness of the sport performance in the last
period has become  one of the popular
research. By increasing the critical component of peak sport performance ,
awareness , (Jackson & Csikszentmihalyi, 1999; Ravizza, 2002), some of the
researches have suggested that mindfulness exercises may help to generate flow
or state of the complete focusing on the task or event at hand. (Aherne, Moran,
& Lonsdale, 2011; Kee & Wang, 2008). Gnardner and Moore (2012)
mentioned that hypothesized that mindfulness – based interventions for sports
are effective for the reason that they help athletes to direct their attention
to the current athletic task, while when minimizing external distractions.
Brown and Ryan (2003) mentioned that they found that the increase of
mindfulness psychological will – being by the increase of awareness of one’s
current experience (

 

The similarities of mindfulness to other
psychotherapy – related constructs as an example mindfulness is similar to
metallizaion (Bateman & Fonagy, 2004, 2006; Fonagy & Bateman, 2008),
the development of the process of understanding one’s own and others behavior
in terms of the individuals’ feelings, thoughts , and the desires to both
constructs emphasize the temporary, the subjective and the fluid nature of the
mental states and both of them are thought to influence the effect of
regulation and the cognitive flexibility (Wallin, 2007)

Five of the facets of the mindfulness are : the
first point is that the observing that refers to noticing , sensing to thee
experience which occurred in current time such as the thoughts and emotions.
The second element is the describing , which refers to labeling the internal
experience with words. Lebow, J. (2008). The third point is the acting with the
awareness, that involves focusing on persons activities at a certain moment as
it opposed the mechanical behaving. The fourth element is the non-judging of
inner experience that refers to the taking of a non – evaluative  stance toward the private experience. The
fifth point is the non – reactivity of the inner experience that refers to
noticing thoughts and feelings without showing a reaction toward them ( Baer,
et al., 2006).

The
coordination of the hand – eye is used in many sports activities; especially in
sports like fencing. It’s a great sport which can improve the hand – eye
coordination (Kogler (2005) he explained that Fencing sport is one of the
comlex sports also he explained that a good fencing performance can be achieved
by advance perceptual and cognitive abilities like attention of the
coordination , making of decision  and
visuospatial memory. Fencing needs the coordination between the  hands, 
the feet and the eyes. The side congruency of the hand and eye
preference is considered as an essential for efficient hand – eye coordination
which contains sighting and aiming. The researches have found that the
incidence of the left – eydness was 47% for the group that threw it with by
using their right hand and wrote by their left hand but the rate was 55% for
the group that threw it with their left hand and wrote with their right hand . Porac
C.  (2016 ). An another research contend
that the hand and eye preference on the opposite sides according to the body
which leads to a better coordinated performance especially in some sports such
as boxing and fencing. These researches argue that the sighting eye is
controlled mainly by the visual centers in the hemisphere for the same side of
the head where the uncrossed optic fibers travel to the brain on the same side
of the hear which thought to be as a dominant processers of the visual
information hand movement which controlled by the hemisphere that controlling
the coordination actions. As an example for that is that if some one is left –
headed and right – eyed the right hemisphere alone will direct hand – eye
coordination. As a transfer of the information between the hemispheres is not
involved for the left _ handed right – eyed action ther (porac, 2016) .

Fencing
is divided into three major branches depending upon the weapons employed. The
fencing is divided to three different types of weapons used which are foils,
sabers and epees. Just a few of the cognitive studies focused mainly on various
aspects of fencing such as mindfulness , hand – eye coordination (Azemar etal.
2007) , and also left handed versus right handed athletes (Harris 2007). So
about 90% of all human beings used their right hand (right – handed) which
means that the left – brain dominates for the motor skills because of the wide
majority of people are right – handed , Coon & Mitterer ( 2011, 2008).

Now
the relationship in comparison between the mindfulness and the cognition can be
considered as an important toped of the research that is only began recently to
unravel. So the aim of this study was to determine the level of mindfulness ;
hand eye coordination and strength for fencing player .Also To determine
whether the gender differences in mindfulness were exist within samples
of fencing players.  Moreover the current
study aimed to address handedness differences in fencing regarding to hand eye
coordination and strength.

We hypothesise that
fencing players have a good mindfulness and strength, good  hand eye coordination and there is a gender
and handedness differences regarding to hand eye coordination, strength and
mindfulness , in this study  we will  attempt to find the relationship between both
of the strength of mindfulness and the hand – eye coordination among  the elite fencers.

Material and
Methods

Participants

Study
sample consists of sixteen national fencers (Jordanian national team), aged
between (    14 to 23) years 8 males (M =
16.87, SD = 3.52 ) and 8 females ( M = 15.12 yr , SD = 2.03 ) ,

 

Research Instruments and Procedure

 

The
Arabic version of The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) is used to
assess mindfulness. It is consisted of a 39 items of higher scores that
indicate the greater levels of mindfulness (Baer, et al., 2006, al wamaleh
2015). The five facets were observed described , acted with awareness, also
non  – judging of the inner experience
and non – reactivity to inner experience . we used  a coefficient of an internal consistency so
we can determine the reliability of the Arabic version of the  (FFMQ) in accordance with the Cronbach )
alpha result. The coefficient of the internal reliability of the Arabic Version
of the (FFMQ) indicated that the stability of the test was acceptable. The
significant level that was reached due to the reliability values were (** 0.69)
.

Hand
grip dynameters was used for the measuring of the maximum isometric strength
for the hand and arm muscles. Because handgrip strength is an important factor
or element for the fencing players.

Procedure
: the dynamometers must be held at the hand that should be tested. The arm
should be in the right angles and at the same time the elbow must be by the
side of the body. The dynamometer can be adjusted if that is required – as the
base should rest on the first metacarpal while the handle should be rested on
the middle of the four fingers. When the athlete is ready he should squeezes
the dynamometer with maximum isometric effort then this step will maintain for
about five seconds. During this step no other body movement is permitted.

Steadiness Tester
Hole Type  used  to assess Hand-eye coordination( Fig 2).

The
athlets mission here is to hold a metal – tipped stylus in a nine progressively
smaller holes that differ in size as follow ((1.156;
1.125;0.5; 0.312; 0.187; 0,109; 0;093; 0;078; 0.0625) inches taking in consideration not to touch the holes from
the inside. On the other hand a Silent Impulse Counter Model 58024C was used to
detect any errors.

 

Conclusion

In
this study, the focus was mindfulness of elite fencers and the handedness
differences for the eye hand coordination, strength. The researchers suggested
that the differences of mindfulness of athletes must be further investigated.
In addition to that , the influence of variables that was taken in
consideration such as the gender, eye – hand coordination and the strength
experience must be examined to offer better insight on the relationship between
these factors.