Different models around the world: Constitutions with a high degree of separation of powers are found world. (even though there is the existence of) the safeguards it gives against very bad treatment, the modern day(communities of people) find it very hard to apply it stiffly and strictly. In way of thinking/basic truth/rule they go for separation of powers and dilution of powers (at the same time). United States: In the United States Constitution, Article I Section I gives Congress only those “law-based powers(in this/within this) granted” and go ahead/move forwards to list those allowed actions in Article ISection 8, while Section 9 lists actions that are prohibited for Congress. The (giving power, property, or rights) clause in Article II places no limits on the Executive branch, simply statingthat, “The Executive Power will be vested in a President of the United States of America.” The Supreme Court holds “The (law-related) Power” according to Article III, and it established thehint/result/effect of (law-related) review in Mar bury v. Madison. The federal government refersto the branches as “branches of government”, while some systems use “government” to describethe executive. The Executive branch has tried to forcefully take power from Congress arguing forSeparation of powers to include being the Commander in Chief of a standing army since the (war between groups that all live in one country), executive orders, emergency powers and securityclassifications since WWII, national security, signing statements, and now the idea of a unitaryexecutive. To prevent one branch from becoming (most powerful/better than anyone or anything else), andto cause the branches to cooperate, authority and control systems that employ a separation ofpowers need a way to balance each of the branches. Usually this was very skillful through asystem of “checks and balances”, the origin of which, like separation of powers itself, isspecifically credited to Montesquieu. Checks and balances allows for a system based regulationthat allows one branch to limit another, such as the power of Congress to change thecomposition and legal control/area of legal control of the federal courts. United Kingdom: Although the way of thinking/basic truth/rule of separation of power plays a role in the UnitedKingdom’s (agreeing with, or related to, the Constitution) idea/belief, the UK Constitution is oftendescribed as having “a weak separation of powers”, (even though there is the existence of) itsConstitution being the one to which Montesquieu (at first/before other things happened)referred. For example, in the United Kingdom, the executive forms a subset of the government, as does–to a lesser extent–the (related to judges and the court system). The Prime Minister, thechief executive, must by convention be a Member of the House of Commons and can effectivelybe removed from office by a simple majority vote. What’s more, while the courts in Britain aredefinitely among the most independent in the world, the Law Lords, who are the final judges of(law-related) arguments in the UK, sit (at the same time) in the House of Lords, the upper houseof the government, although this arrangement stopped in 2009 when the Supreme Court of theUnited Kingdom came into existence. What’s more, because of the existence of (related to elected lawmakers) independent power (of a country), while the explanation of separation ofpowers may be studied in Britain, a system such as that of the UK is more (in a way that’s close to the truth or true number) described as a “fusion of powers.” The development of the British Constitution, which is not written down in one document, isbased on this fusion in the National ruler, who has a formal role to play in the government(Parliament, which is where legal and political independent power (of a country) lies, is theCrown-in-Parliament, and is called-for and ended/stopped by the Queen who must give her RoyalAgreement to all Bills so that they become Acts), the executive (the Queen (assigns to a position)all ministers of Her Majesty’s Government, who govern in the name of the Crown) and the(related to judges and the court system) (the Queen, as the fount of justice, (assigns to a position)all senior judges, and all public prosecutions are brought in her name). The British legal system is based on common law traditions which require: -Police or (devices that control things/groups of people that ensure rules are followed) cannotstart complaints under criminal law but can only (ask lots of questions about/try to find the truth about) (prosecution is mostly reserved for the Crown Prosecution Service), which preventsselective enforcement, e.g. the ‘fishing big, important trip’ which is often specifically forbidden. -Lawyers (who try to prove people guilty) cannot withhold (event(s) or object(s) that prove something) from lawyers for the person (who is being sued or who was sued); to do so results inmistrial or dismissal. In the same way/in that way, their relation to police is no advantage. -People (who are being sued or who were sued) convicted can appeal, but no new (event(s) or object(s) that prove something) can usually be introduced, restricting the power of the court of(taking a court case to a higher court for review) to the process of law applied. (related to Europe) Union: The branches of the (related to Europe) Union are (a) little mixed due to the complex nature ofthe EU’s design. There are five institutions of the (related to Europe) Union. The functioning ofthe EU is split into intergovernmental and supranational worlds/areas/balls (see three (tall supporting posts/important parts) of the (related to Europe) Union). In intergovernmentalmatters, most power is mainly located in the (group of people who advise or govern) of the(related to Europe) Union – giving it the (features/ qualities/ traits) of an (usual/ commonly and regular/ healthy) international organization. Here, all power at EU level is in one branch. In the last thing just mentioned there are four main actors. The (related to Europe) Commission acts asan independent executive which is selected by the (group of people who advise or govern) along with the (related to Europe) Parliament. The (related to Europe) Parliament is one half of the law-based branch and is directly elected. The (group of people who advise or govern) itself acts bothas the second half of the law-based branch and also holds some executive functions (some ofwhich are exercised by the related (related to Europe) (group of people who advise or govern) inpractice). The (related to Europe) Court of Justice acts as the independent (law-related) branch, understanding/explaining EU law and agreements between countries. The remaining institution, the (related to Europe) Court of People (who carefully check business records), is an independenthearing-related/sound-related authority (due to the sensitive nature of illegal dishonesty/stealing (by lying) in the EU). -Person from Europe Commission – executive -Person from Europe Parliament – law-based -(group of people who advise or govern) of the (related to Europe) Union – law-based andexecutive -Person from Europe Court of Justice – (law-related) -Person from Europe Court of People (who carefully check business records) – hearing-related/sound-related Different models around the world: Constitutions with a high degree of separation of powers are found world. (even though there is the existence of) the safeguards it gives against very bad treatment, the modern day(communities of people) find it very hard to apply it stiffly and strictly. In way of thinking/basic truth/rule they go for separation of powers and dilution of powers (at the same time). United States: In the United States Constitution, Article I Section I gives Congress only those “law-based powers(in this/within this) granted” and go ahead/move forwards to list those allowed actions in Article ISection 8, while Section 9 lists actions that are prohibited for Congress. The (giving power, property, or rights) clause in Article II places no limits on the Executive branch, simply statingthat, “The Executive Power will be vested in a President of the United States of America.” The Supreme Court holds “The (law-related) Power” according to Article III, and it established thehint/result/effect of (law-related) review in Mar bury v. Madison. The federal government refersto the branches as “branches of government”, while some systems use “government” to describethe executive. The Executive branch has tried to forcefully take power from Congress arguing forSeparation of powers to include being the Commander in Chief of a standing army since the (war between groups that all live in one country), executive orders, emergency powers and securityclassifications since WWII, national security, signing statements, and now the idea of a unitaryexecutive. To prevent one branch from becoming (most powerful/better than anyone or anything else), andto cause the branches to cooperate, authority and control systems that employ a separation ofpowers need a way to balance each of the branches. Usually this was very skillful through asystem of “checks and balances”, the origin of which, like separation of powers itself, isspecifically credited to Montesquieu. Checks and balances allows for a system based regulationthat allows one branch to limit another, such as the power of Congress to change thecomposition and legal control/area of legal control of the federal courts. United Kingdom: Although the way of thinking/basic truth/rule of separation of power plays a role in the UnitedKingdom’s (agreeing with, or related to, the Constitution) idea/belief, the UK Constitution is oftendescribed as having “a weak separation of powers”, (even though there is the existence of) itsConstitution being the one to which Montesquieu (at first/before other things happened)referred. For example, in the United Kingdom, the executive forms a subset of the government, as does–to a lesser extent–the (related to judges and the court system). The Prime Minister, thechief executive, must by convention be a Member of the House of Commons and can effectivelybe removed from office by a simple majority vote. What’s more, while the courts in Britain aredefinitely among the most independent in the world, the Law Lords, who are the final judges of(law-related) arguments in the UK, sit (at the same time) in the House of Lords, the upper houseof the government, although this arrangement stopped in 2009 when the Supreme Court of theUnited Kingdom came into existence. What’s more, because of the existence of (related to elected lawmakers) independent power (of a country), while the explanation of separation ofpowers may be studied in Britain, a system such as that of the UK is more (in a way that’s close to the truth or true number) described as a “fusion of powers.” The development of the British Constitution, which is not written down in one document, isbased on this fusion in the National ruler, who has a formal role to play in the government(Parliament, which is where legal and political independent power (of a country) lies, is theCrown-in-Parliament, and is called-for and ended/stopped by the Queen who must give her RoyalAgreement to all Bills so that they become Acts), the executive (the Queen (assigns to a position)all ministers of Her Majesty’s Government, who govern in the name of the Crown) and the(related to judges and the court system) (the Queen, as the fount of justice, (assigns to a position)all senior judges, and all public prosecutions are brought in her name). The British legal system is based on common law traditions which require: -Police or (devices that control things/groups of people that ensure rules are followed) cannotstart complaints under criminal law but can only (ask lots of questions about/try to find the truth about) (prosecution is mostly reserved for the Crown Prosecution Service), which preventsselective enforcement, e.g. the ‘fishing big, important trip’ which is often specifically forbidden. -Lawyers (who try to prove people guilty) cannot withhold (event(s) or object(s) that prove something) from lawyers for the person (who is being sued or who was sued); to do so results inmistrial or dismissal. In the same way/in that way, their relation to police is no advantage. -People (who are being sued or who were sued) convicted can appeal, but no new (event(s) or object(s) that prove something) can usually be introduced, restricting the power of the court of(taking a court case to a higher court for review) to the process of law applied. (related to Europe) Union: The branches of the (related to Europe) Union are (a) little mixed due to the complex nature ofthe EU’s design. There are five institutions of the (related to Europe) Union. The functioning ofthe EU is split into intergovernmental and supranational worlds/areas/balls (see three (tall supporting posts/important parts) of the (related to Europe) Union). In intergovernmentalmatters, most power is mainly located in the (group of people who advise or govern) of the(related to Europe) Union – giving it the (features/ qualities/ traits) of an (usual/ commonly and regular/ healthy) international organization. Here, all power at EU level is in one branch. In the last thing just mentioned there are four main actors. The (related to Europe) Commission acts asan independent executive which is selected by the (group of people who advise or govern) along with the (related to Europe) Parliament. The (related to Europe) Parliament is one half of the law-based branch and is directly elected. The (group of people who advise or govern) itself acts bothas the second half of the law-based branch and also holds some executive functions (some ofwhich are exercised by the related (related to Europe) (group of people who advise or govern) inpractice). The (related to Europe) Court of Justice acts as the independent (law-related) branch, understanding/explaining EU law and agreements between countries. The remaining institution, the (related to Europe) Court of People (who carefully check business records), is an independenthearing-related/sound-related authority (due to the sensitive nature of illegal dishonesty/stealing (by lying) in the EU). -Person from Europe Commission – executive -Person from Europe Parliament – law-based -(group of people who advise or govern) of the (related to Europe) Union – law-based andexecutive -Person from Europe Court of Justice – (law-related) -Person from Europe Court of People (who carefully check business records) – hearing-related/sound-related