Bacterial
infection – Streptococcus pneumonia (one of the main causes of sinusitis)

The symptoms

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Postnasal
drip.
Discoloured
nasal discharge (greenish in colour)
Nasal
stuffiness or congestion.
Tenderness
of the face (particularly under the eyes or at the bridge of the nose)
Frontal
headaches.
Pain
in the teeth.
Coughing.
Fever

 

Streptococcus pneumonia makes you ill by
causing other forms and types of pneumococcal colonization (give you other
illnesses) it weakens your immune system so much the body will struggle to
fight of most illness. It allows other types of pneumonia by transferring them
from the site of colonisation (were the diseases are located) to other areas
first the lungs then into the blood stream and finally to the brain at this
point the likelihood of surviving is very low. The way is spreads the other
diseases around like a bus allows the body to fall ill fast and it is able to
deliver specialized diseases to part of the body where they perform at their
best.

 

The infection is also known “pneumococcus” it
belongs the a bacterial family called “genus streptococcus”. They are usually
found in pairs in almost all situations and they don’t form spores the are
non-motile (that means not capable of movement) It is one of the most
significant human pathogenic bacterium (which means it infects a lot of people)
It was recognised as being a significant disease after the death rate in the us
reached 50,000 a year. S. pneumonia is the main cause of community acquired
pneumonia which means if one person has it can spread to the entire community
very fast. It is most common in the young and elderly. The organism also causes
many types of pneumonia’s to infections in the body e.g. ear
infections, sinus infections, meningitis (infection of the covering around the
brain and spinal cord).  It can be tested
for with a “bile solubility test.      

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Virus – rabies (Mononegavirales)

The
symptoms                           

·       Fever.

·       Headache.

·       Nausea.

·       Vomiting.

·       Agitation.

·       Anxiety.

·       Confusion.

·       Hyperactivity.

 

How this actually makes
you ill is that this form of rabies attaches to nerve cells in the body this
can cause paralysis in the legs and it can stop the nerves from working properly
and disrupt signals. This form of rabies covers the nerve cells and then can
transcribe the DNA into RNA and it uses the nerves to travel to they brain this
causes damage to the brain as a whole and can cause erratic behaviour this is
common in animals like dogs.

 

The life cycle of this
form of rabies is that after the virus binds to the receptors. The hosts cells
go through (endosomal transport pathway) this is
a membrane that binds cells together and it causes it to break and the cells
fall aapart with fast degradation.     

Parasites – Schistosoma mansoni (flatworm blood
fluke)    

The symptoms

·     
Fever

·     
arthralgia’s

·     
abdominal pain

·     
 haematuria

·     
bloody stool

 

Blood flukes are
parasitic flatworms. They start living in snails that transfer them
into the surrounding water. The eggs of the worms get washed out of the body
with their host’s stool.  

 

In lots of
cases the worm actually travels into the hosts body on a tiny snail in the water
and then burrows itself inside the the body and can cause intense pain and irritation
by producing toxic chemicals in small levels by will mainly feed of the host
and can spend decades inside a person’s body and cause pain but it can be extremely
difficult to remove as is very small to begin with but burrows itself into the
host.

 

Fungus – Athlete’s foot

The symptoms

·       itching, stinging, and
burning between the toes.

·       itching, stinging, and
burning on the soles of the feet.

·       blisters on the feet that
itch.

·       cracking and peeling skin
on the feet, most commonly between the toes and on the soles

 

Athlete’s foot can make you ill if Left untreated, the
fungus can spread to other parts of your body, such as other areas of the skin.
Although the fungus that causes athlete’s foot rarely leads to serious illness,
people with compromised immune systems — such as those who are HIV or cancer may
develop serious infections beneath the skin.

 

Athlete’s foot is a fungal infection that usually
begins between the toes. It commonly occurs in people whose feet while within tightfitting shoes. The
infection can sores on the skin and even make them susceptible to other types
of infection it can make walking on your feet cause extreme pain that means
people with athletes foot sometimes are incapable of walking.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Life-cycle-of-the-rice-blast-fungus-Magnaporthe-oryzaeThe-rice-blast-fungus-starts-its_24012213

 

Ciliates – Balantidium coli

 

The symptoms

 

 

·     
diarrhoea 

·     
nausea

·     
vomiting 

·     
sick illness

 

Balantidium coli lives
in the colon of humans and other mammals it cannot normally be transmitted from
one species to another because it takes a long time to adjust to a new host especially
if is is a new species and it live symbiotically with other ciliates.  Once the ciliates has had time to adapt it
becomes a serious pathogen even more so in humans. It then begins to multiply
then becomes encysts due to dehydration but this gives the Balantidium coli a distinct
advantage over most other forms of ciliates.

 

Balantidium coli makes you ill by infection the colon and causing
body fluids to be released such as blood in stool. It can also make the host
vomit and have serve nausea.

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

An infectious disease is a disorder caused by organisms such as
bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Infectious also means that can be
transferred and passed on from person to person or from animals in many ways
e.g. droplet and air.

 

                       

 

 

 

 

Non-infectious diseases 

 

Genetic

 

The symptoms

 

·       Intellectual
disabilities, ranging from mild to severe.

·       Attention deficit and
hyperactivity, especially in young children.

·       Anxiety and unstable
mood.

·       Autistic behaviours, such
as hand-flapping and not making eye contact.

·       Sensory integration
problems, such as hypersensitivity to loud noises or bright lights.