Abstract—Visually impaired and deaf people find itextremely difficult to acquire basic and vitalinformation necessary for their living. Therefore, theyare at a very high risk of being socially excluded as aresult of poor access to information. In recent years,several attempts have been made in improving thecommunication methods for visually impaired peoplehave been developed which involve tactile sensationsuch as finger Braille, manual alphabets and the printon palm method and several other electronic devices.But, there are some problems which arise in suchmethods such as lack of privacy and lack ofcompatibility to computer environment. As people age,many of them are forced to stop reading Braillebecause of losing the sensation in their fingertips, acommon effect of diabetes and other diseases. Thispaper describes a low-cost Braille hand glove for blindand deaf people using slot sensors and vibrationmotors with the help of which they can read and writeemails, text messages and read e-books. This gloveallows the person to type characters based on differentBraille combination using six slot sensors. Thevibration in six different positions of the glove whichmatches to the Braille code allows them to readcharacters.Keywords—Braille, Braille Glove, Slot sensors,Vibration motorsI. INTRODUCTIONBraille is a series of raised dots that can be readwith the fingers by people who are visually impaired ordeaf and blind. About 37 million people across the globeare visually impaired. They have to rely on conventionaland orthodox methods1of obtaininginformation but these methods are tedious, slow andinefficient and are not suitable for the computerenvironment. Emails, text messages, internet blogs, ebooksetc. have become an integral part of our life and thevisually impaired unfortunately are deprived of suchfacilities. This is a small attempt by us to try to solve theirproblems by opening up the digital world to them. Braillehas come under attack in recent years due to the followingmain reasons? Most of the Braille equipments are mechanical? Computer Braille related software and hardwareequipments are less in use? There has hardly been any device for educationalpurpose and routine communication.2To obtain information necessary to carry out normal dayto-day activities, this low cost real-time communicationBraille Glove is one device which can immensely benefitthe visually impaired people, who work in the computerenvironment. This concept will goa long way in helpingthem learn on an equal footing with their sightedcounterparts. The main problem with Braille labels is thatproportion of blind people who can read Braille is verylow. Thus, to the vast majority of people for whom theadaptation is intended it is quite useless.3In a paper, to bridge the gap between the blindpeople and the technological advancement in thetelecommunication field they decided to design a SMSsystems for the blind by interfacing Braille pad with thecell phone so that the visually impaired person can havethe access to the SMS system. However, this system is abit bulky and handy. As it reads the SMS character bycharacter, so it is a slow process. The user is also unableto access any digital data.4In this paper, we describe a low-cost Braille Glovewhich is made up of six vibration motors which areplaced on the five fingers and on the palm. If a personwants to read a character from the PC, then the charactercorresponds to a Braille code which is matched to the sixvibration motors on the Braille Hand glove. Hence thevibration motors corresponding to the Braille code of thatparticular character vibrates and the character is readefficiently by the reader. It has a unique feature of typingmessages through hand gestures of all the Braille codes.Hence different hand gestures correspond to differentBraille codes. Therefore this paper focus has been onvibration in six different positions in the right hand whichmatched the Braille codes.II. MATCHING OF BRAILLE GLOVE &BRAILLE CELLA braille cell is a rectangular cell consisting of six dotsarranged in the form of a 3×2 matrix. These six dots allowsixty-four different patterns of dot arrangement.5Therefore, these dots arrangements can be used torepresent sixty-four different characters. The hand glovecomprises of six slot sensors, five which are placed on thefingers and one placed on the wrist and six vibrationmotors. Fig. 1 below shows the one to one correspondencebetween the Braille cell and the hand glove.Fig. 1 Standard Braille Cell 6Fig. 2 shows the standard Braille chart which we have usethe conversion of Braille to text. This is the basic Grade 1Braille, which we have used here. This chart has all thealphabets both in the uppercase and lowercase, it hasnumbers ranging from zero to nine, comma and full stop. Aspace between characters is represented by no dotes on theBraille cell. Correspondingly on the hand glove it is sensedby vibration of none of the motors. To avoid inconvenience&confusion between the timing of the character and a spacea time delay of five seconds is kept between twoconsecutive characters and the character is available forsensing for ten seconds. These time delays can be alteredaccording to the requirement of the user.Figure 2 is a chart that has all the alphabets both in theuppercase and lowercase, it has numbers ranging from zeroto nine, comma and full stop. A space between characters isrepresented by no dotes on the Braille cell.Suppose, the user wants to write the alphabet ‘E’, he willmove his thumb and little finger which represent the 1st andthe 5thdots of the Braille cell. Similarly for ‘X’, he willmove his thumb, middle finger, ring finger and wristrepresenting 1st and 4th dots and so on.While reading the text, if the user encounters alphabet ‘T’,he will sense motion in his four fingers which represent the2,3,4,5 positions on the Braille cell.Thus on knowing the Braille chart, the user can very easilywrite or read text using the glove.Fig. 2 Standard Braille Chart6III. PROPOSED SYSTEMA. Module for reading textFig. 3 Block Diagram for the module of Reading TextThe first module is for receiving or reading online textfrom the PC. In the module shown in Figure 3 the emailsand online text is sent to the Graphical UserInterface (GUI) on the PC. The American StandardCode for Information Interchange (ASCII) value of thecharacter to be read is sent wirelessly from the PC tothe Micro-controller using the wireless CC 2500 RadioFrequency (RF) Trans receiver module. The AmericanStandard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)value of the character sent from the PC is converted tothe corresponding Braille code using a conversionalgorithm. This conversion program is written in anEmbedded C language and it is recorded in microcontroller of the Braille Glove.E-MAILS, TEXTMESSAGES,BLOGS,E-BLOGSGUI ON PCCC 2500TRANSRECEIVERMODULEASCII TO BRAILLECONVERSIONALGORITHMMICROCONTROLLERVIBRATIONMOTORDRIVER ICVIBRATIONMOTORS HAND-GLOVEB. Module for writing textThe block diagram shown in figure 4 is of the secondmodule of the proposed system is meant for writing onlinetext and replying to emails. This is accomplished by usingthe low-cost slot sensors for typing characters.INPUTTEXT ON PCFig..4 Block Diagram for the module of Reading TextA mechanism is developed for the slot sensors such thatwhen a finger is bent the slot sensor which is placed on thefinger gets activated and produces an output high which isapproximately 5 Volts. When the finger is in the relaxedstate the sensor produces an output low which is 0 Volts.IV. IMPLEMENTATION OF THEPROPOSED SYSTEMA. Hardware Implementation1. Braille Hardware Algorithm:The Hardware algorithm used in the hand glove isbased on the retrieval value of English letter from the usertyped in the software tool. The ASCII value is applied to 89procedures and it activates the corresponding vibrationmotors as follows:a) Store the mode of vibration (serial / parallel), defaultmode is serial mode.b) Read the input values one by one and convert it into thecorresponding ASCII value up to the NULL (enter key)value.c) Converted ASCII value is applied to 89 procedures asperthe following condition:(a) If the Input value is between ‘a’ to ‘z’ (ASCII Value97to 122) then the corresponding ASCII procedure number isactivated and vibrates the hand glove.(b) If the Input value is in special symbol list (ASCII Value33 -47, 58-64 and 123-126) then the corresponding ASCIIprocedure number is activated and vibrates the hand glove.(c) If the Input value is between ‘A’ to ‘Z’ (ASCII Value65to 90) then procedure number 44 and corresponding ASCIIprocedure number is activated and vibrates the hand glove.(Capital letters are initiated by a placing a dot in the 6thposition of the Braille cell so procedure number 44 vibratesthe 6thposition of the hand glove).(d) If the Input value is between ‘0’to ‘9’ (ASCII Value48 to57) then procedure number 35 and corresponding ASCIIprocedure number is activated and vibrates the hand glove.(Numbers are initiated by placing a dot in the 3, 4, 5 and 6thposition of the Braille cell so procedure number 35 vibratesthe 3, 4,5 and 6th position of the hand glove)(e) If the Input value is blank (ASCII value 32) thencorresponding ASCII procedure number is activated andvibrates the hand glove.d) Repeat step 3 until all the characters of input values arematched with ASCII procedure numbers.Each of 89 ASCII procedure numbers is linked with sixdigitbinary numbers in an array. The presence of1’s in asix-digit binary value is nothing but rising position of theBraille symbol. So, the presence of 1’sin a six-digit binaryvalue activates the corresponding vibration motors in theglove. The electronic circuitry of the hand glove comprisesof the following components and modules:1. Slot Sensors:The slot sensor used here is MOC7811. It performs Non-Contact Object Sensing. This is normally used as a positionsensor switch (limit switch) or as Position Encoder sensorsused to find the position of the wheel.2. Vibration Motors:One of the main components is the vibration motorplaced on the Glove. The amount of vibration producedis fairly proportional to the applied voltage. Thesemotors are fixed on a coin for better mounting on thehand glove and are placed on each of the fingers andthe palm. The nominal voltage for these motors is about3 V. The normal operating voltage for these motors isabout 2.0~3.5 V and the rated current is about 85 mA.3. Motor Driver IC:We have made use of DRV777 motor driver IC to drive thesix vibration motors. The vibration motors have a very lowoperating voltage a proper circuitry has to be designed todrive these motors without causing any damage to them. Itis a 16 pin Surface mount device (SMD) package which hasseven input and seven output pins. Since the motors aredriven by the output of the microcontroller voltage has tobe converted to a level suitable for driving the motors.4. Comparator IC:The slot sensors used here give an analog output. Sincethe slot sensors are to be interfaced to themicrocontroller the output of the slot sensors isdigitized by using comparator IC LM324. The outputvoltage of the slot sensor is compared with the fixedreference voltage which can be varied using a voltagedivider circuit with a 100k ohm variable resistor.Therefore, the output of the IC is either logic high orSLOTSENSORSON HANDGLOVECOMPARATORS/VOLTAGEDIVIDERMICROCONTROLLERBRAILLE TOASCIICONVERSIONALGORITHMCC 2500TRANSRECEIVERMODULEGUIONPClogic low. The schematic of comparator circuit shownin figure 5 was designed using Eagle software.Fig. 5 Schematic of Comparator IC5. AVR Microcontroller Development Board:The AVR development board includes the followingfeatures.1. Atmel’s ATmega8 Microcontroller with 8kb flashmemory working at 16MIPS.2. On-board LCD interface (it can also be used forany other general purpose application).3. On-board Motor Driver for connecting 4 DCmotors or 2Stepper motors.4. On-board servo interface.5. PC interface through Universal AsynchronousReceiver Transmitter (UART).6. 21 general purpose Input/output pins.The microcontroller development board is theprocessing unit of the proposed design. All theconversion algorithms for the system are stored in themicrocontroller. This forms the control unit of thesystem. The slot sensors and the vibration motors haveto be interfaced to this development board.6. CC 2500Trans Receiver (Radio Frequency Module):The CC 2500 Trans receiver module is used fortransmitting data wirelessly from the PC to the hand gloveand vice versa. This wireless module has a range of up to100 meters. This makes the hand glove portable,comfortable to use and eliminates the use of unnecessarywires and cables for interfacing the hand glove to the PC.This module transmits characters in the form of itsAmerican Standard Code for Information Interchange(ASCII) values.7. Power supply:It is used in the circuit is a 9V DC battery. Themicrocontroller development board requires an operatingvoltage of 3.3 Volts and other electronic circuits involvingdifferent ICs like the comparator IC and the motor driverIC require a voltage of about 5 Volts. Therefore, we havedesigned voltage regulator circuits using some passivecomponents and special voltage regulator ICs.Fig. 6 shows the circuit diagram of a 5 Volt voltageregulator circuit. The IC used here is the LM7805 5 Volts, 3pin voltage regulator. This is a low power, low cost IC.Fig. 6 Schematic of 5 Volt voltage regulatorFig. 7 shows the circuit diagram of a 3.3 Volt voltageregulator circuit. This circuit comprises of capacitors and aspecial IC TLV1117 by Texas Instruments. This IC is anadjustable positive low-dropout voltage regulator capable ofproducing different output voltage levels, but we have usedthis for generating 3.3 Volts.Fig. 7 Schematic of 3.3 Volt voltage regulator1. Software ImplementationBraille software algorithm:When English text is translated to Braille code,the steps are as follows:a) Read the input value up to the enter key.b) Separate the words on the basis of blank space.c) Break the word into single letter.d) Access the Braille database based on the following majorcondition:? If the input value is between ‘a’ to ‘z’, then it printsthe corresponding small letter Braille Symbol fromthe Braille Database.? If the input value is between ‘A’ to ‘Z’ then itprints the corresponding Capital letter Braillesymbol from the Braille Database. (Capital lettersare indicated by placing a dot in the 6th position ofthe Braille cell followed by lowercase Braillesymbol of the same letter.)? If the input value is between ‘0’ to ‘9’ then it printsthe Braille Numbers from the Braille Database.(Braille numbers are constructed using the first tenletters of the alphabet “a” through “j” and a specialnumber sign (#) i.e., dots 3, 4, 5 and 6 in front ofthe each value.)? If the input value is in special symbol list ([email protected]#$%^&*()_+:”;’<>? ; /, . Etc) then it prints thecorresponding Braille symbol from the BrailleDatabase.? Repeat the step 4 until all the characters of theinput values are matched with database.If a character does not match in Braille Database thenappropriate error message is generated. By following theabove mentioned steps, we will be able to convert English toBraille code successfully.The Integrated Development Environment (IDE) used forthe proposed system is AVR Studio for compiling andrunning the code on the ATmega8 development board. Theconversion code for converting Braille to text and vice versais written in Embedded C.The boot loader flashing tool used for burning the code onthe development board is HID boot flash7. The RF modulecan transmit the text data in the form of its AmericanStandard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) valuesto and fro in the Microcontroller using the GUI created inPython. This terminal displays the text to be read/writtenusing the Hand Glove. This Terminal is linked withGraphical User Interface which enables the user to link thetext read/written to the internet.The Graphical User Interface (GUI) will be coded inPYTHON Language. The ’email’;’smtplib’ & ‘imaplib’modules in Python are used for sending and receiving mailson the computer. Atmel Studio 7 is the integrateddevelopment platform (IDP) for developing and debuggingAtmel AVR microcontroller (MCU) applications. Studio 7supports all AVR and Atmel SMART MCUs. The AtmelStudio 7 IDP gives you a seamless and easy-to-useenvironment to write, build and debug your applicationswritten in Embedded C and assembly code. It also connectsseamlessly to Atmel debuggers and development kits.Results of the GUI:1 Login page for user authentication2 Mode Selection for Read and Write3 Selection of Write Mode for sending E-mails4 Test Mail5 Mail sent successfully6 Mail received successfullyV. CONCLUSIONThe Braille Hand Glove can be successfully usedto receive as well as transmit text data from the PC tothe glove and vice versa based on the different standardBraille combination. In this project we have used Grade1 Braille conversion chart. The efficiency of the glovecan further be improved by using the Grade 2 Brailleconversion chart, in which we transmit and receive anentire word for a particular Braille pattern and henceincrease the speed of receiving and transmitting textwith very good efficiency. This Braille Hand glove canalso be used by blind people for other applications likeopening web pages and reading E-books independentlywith the help of Graphical User Interface (GUI) fromMATLAB and other Integrated DevelopmentEnvironment (IDE) like Code Composer Studio.VI. REFERENCES1 J. G. LmvILL, J.C Bliss, “A Direct Translation ReadingAid for the Blind,” Proceedings of the IEEE, January1966.2 Kenneth R. Ingham “Spelled Speech as an Output forComputers and Reading Machines for the Blind,” IEEEtransactions on human factors in electronics, vol. hfe-8,no. 3, September 1967.3 Prasaanth.N, Parish Vyas, Rahul Tolani, Sandhya Pati,”Advanced aid for Visually Impaired for reading textonline,” International Journal of Engineering andAdvanced Technology (IJEAT) ISSN: 2249 –8958,Volume-2, Issue-2, December 2012.4 Raj S. Mamarde, Rasika A. 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