Abstract— Agriculture serves to be the major occupation in
India which contributes to maximum of our GDP .It thus becomes important to
have automated techniques for agricultural purposes. Measuring soil
moisture is important in agriculture to help farmers manage their irrigation
systems more efficiently.  Embedded
system for automatic irrigation of an agriculture field offers a potential
solution to support site- specific irrigation management that allows producers
to maximize their productivity while saving the water. Thus, this
system may help to increase yields and the quality of the crop by better
management of soil moisture during critical plant growth stages.

 

I.  INTRODUCTION

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Wireless Sensor
Networks (WSN) is intelligent sensor network which are deployed at desired
location to check the current value. WSN is a concept in which the
environmental or physical conditions are monitored and this monitored data is
passed through wireless channel on a main location. WSN contains various
components such as sensors, microcontrollers, electronic board and data
obtained from WSN is stored in the database which is further used in analytic
process. WSN uses sensors to obtain the
input data from the environment. The obtained input or the sensed value is
compared with the preset threshold and then the desired action is taken.
Comparison is done by the microcontroller. Microcontroller takes an action
through relays as a result of comparison. The
WSN system works as follows:

·       
Sense the value using various available sensors
in the field.

·       
Send the sensed values to the controller for
further use.

·       
Controller takes the decision based on the
current sensed vales and acts through the actuators.

 

           In past days farmers have been facing many issues.
Crop yields are reduced due to inadequate supply of water. While on the other
hand, sometimes due to farmer’s ignorance or illiteracy fields are filled with
excess amount of water. This may result harmful for some of the crop types as
the fertilizers are drained away by dissolving in the excess water. Also there
are cases where is poor crop yield and bad crop quality due to above mentioned
factors.

 

Therefore, it became necessary to have a cost
effective and time efficient system that can help to monitor and control the
parameters related to soil moisture i.e. the pump on/off. Since the system can
work remotely it can prove to be time efficient because the end user i.e. farmer
can perform the pump on/off using the android application. Facilities like pump
history, pump status can also be checked using the android application.

 

The
system can also help to save water or prevent water logging due to excessive water
flow. Different other functionalities like current marker values, FAQs are also
provided. Thus, this application may not only prove to be helpful but can also
help the farmer to interact with the outside world in order to retrieve
information related to farming.

II. LITERATURE REVIEW

 

1)       
Providing Smart Agricultural Solutions to
Farmers for better yielding using IOT.

This paper
includes the various technologies that can be used to automate the agricultural
system. The detailed study of each type of sensor for specific purposes is
described. It includes current technologies like cloud computing for storing
sensed values for further uses. It also includes fault detection and recovers
management. GPS co-ordinates are also saved .This can be then used for further
purposes. The general flow about the network interfacing with the sensors to
obtain the required parameters is also discussed. 4

 

2)    
IOT Based smart agricultural monitoring
system.

This project
includes various features like GPS based remote controlled monitoring, moisture
and temperature sensing, intruders scaring, security, leaf wetness and proper
irrigation facilities. Various sensors are plotted in the field at different
locations. The operations are performed by interfacing sensors, Wi-Fi, camera with
microcontroller through internet services. 2

 

3)    
Smart Agro System.

This paper describes the implementation of smart Agriculture System using
of wireless sensor networks. Depending on the sensors sensed data is stored in
database further actions are taken. Actions are taken using base station which
includes arduino Uno with integrated GSM module. Base station allots actions to
different sensor nodes. Sensors sensed data is passed to the base station using
Zigbee sensor. To interact with the system android application is provided to
the end user. Static sensors such as soil moisture sensor, pH scale sensor, Humidity
sensor & temperature sensor are plotted in the field. 3

 

4)     Design And development of precision agricultural
system using wireless sensor networks.

In this paper the theory behind the wireless sensor is discussed. The
need along with the working about the wireless sensor network is discussed; the
need to develop the wireless network for the agriculture. Using soil moisture
sensor and temperature sensor, the sensed data is collected in central
processing unit for taking further actions.
4

 

III. PROPOSED MODEL

 

PC/APP: The user will have access
to the system through computer or Android Application. The user will login into
the app on successful registration. The user can check the moisture level of
the field. The user can take appropriate steps according to the water level
i.e. switch on/off pump. User will also be able to check current market rates,
new pesticides, fertilizers and research.

CLIENT: The client will collect
the moisture data from the field and will also notify the user through SMS
using GSM.

SERVER: The Server will
authenticate the user; keep the record of user activity and history of pump
action.

 

Figure I: Proposed System

 

IV. SYSTEM OVERVIEW

 

When new users logins into the system first he has to register first.
Login is provided to him after he                             uploads his
information. Using his username he can login into the system and use the
services. After the user logins into the system he can see pump history, set
action of the pump i.e. either pump on/off. He can also view current market
rates. Support is also provided to them in case of any queries that can be
solved by administration module. The overall system can be divided into three
modules: Client module, Server module, end user module (app/pc).

 

1)  MODULE SPLITUP

 

a)      Client Module

The
client module senses the moisture using the sensor and ends the data to the
server module. Client module acts as the intermediate between the external environment
and the system and plays vital role in transferring the data. It uses the GSM.
It also sends the message to the farmer by comparing the threshold and the
current value so that the farmer can take appropriate action depending on his
needs.

 

b)    
Server Module

The data sensed by the client module acts as an
input to server module and the data is updated at regular time intervals. It uses
MySQL, Apache server. This module is also referred to as administration module
because all the managing rights exist with this module. It includes
functionalities like registration, modification, authorization, deletion etc

 

c)     
Farmer Module

Farmer Module
is controlled by end user like farmer to reads current agricultural
information related his field and performs any appropriate action for the field
Management like making his motor ON/OFF. This module is deployed by using an
Android Application. This module provides functionalities like updates, FAQs,
current market rates, research activities, current market trends etc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure II: System Architecture

 

2)     SYSTEM FEATURES

 

a)      Cost Effective

The overall system can prove to be cost effective since the farmer has
to pay fewer amounts and he can have more effective services on one click.
Other than services he can also have updates to the current market schemes.

 

b)   
 Time efficient and less water wastage

The system can prove to be time efficient
because the time required by the farmer to travel to the farm can be saved and
moreover the water that is wasted due to improper actions can be saved.

 

c)     
 Remote
monitoring

The farmer can
monitor his parameters using the android application. He need not to travel to
the place so the system can prove to be efficient .Since the interfacing
between the external and internal environment is done by android
application therefore, system proves to be efficient and less time consuming.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure III: System Flow Diagram

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VII. CONCLUSION

 

In this project farmer
can monitor and control his farm remotely using the android application. The
system can be integrated to check the moisture level of soil by analyzing the
collected data of the farm. He also can take specific actions like on/off water
pump depending on his requirements without actually visiting the farm. Thus,
the system proves to be cost effective and time efficient.

VIII. FUTURE WORK

 

Using different
technologies and devices the system can be converted into drone where it can
prove useful and there is no need to fix the sensors at desired location. This
the system can prove to be cost effective and not location oriented. Analysis
can also be carried out on the collected data. Video conferencing can also be
implemented.

 

 

REFERENCES

 

1 M.K.Gayatri,
J.Jayasakthi, Dr.G.S.Anandha Mala “Providing
Smart Agricultural Solutions to Farmers for better yielding using IOT.”
2015 IEEE International Conference on Technological Innovations in ICT for
Agriculture and Rural Development (TIAR 2015).

 

2 Dr.N.suma , Sandra Rhea Samson, S.Saranya,                  R.Subhashri,” IOT Based smart agricultural monitoring
system”, International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in
computing and Communication Volume:5 Issue : 2.

 

3 Kapil
Bhusari, Shekhar Borulkar, Tejas Patil, Badrinath Danave,” Smart Agro System”, International  Journal of Research in Advent Technology Special Issue National Conference. “NCPCI-2016”
March 2016.

 

4 S. R. Nandurkar, V. R. Thool, R. C. Thool, “Design And Development of
precision Agricultural System using Wireless Sensor Network”, IEEE International Conference On Automation ,
Control , Energy And Systems(ACES) , Feb 2014.