Abstract Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most prevalent nutritional deficiencies in the world. Adolescence, a period of rapid growth and development, is considered the most nutritionally vulnerable group. To combat these problems, a Nutrition based video game (Snakes and ladders) is developed to create an awareness on Iron Deficiency Anemia. An intervention study was conducted among 180 adolescent girls and boys in Government school and Private School with an objective to study the effect of a change in dietary behaviors for reduction of iron deficiency Anemia. Anthropometric measurements and hemoglobin estimations were collected from the subjects. Socioeconomic status was collected using pretested and Post tested questionnaires. Results showed that majority of low- income groups (Non-heme iron consumption) subjects shows low Hemoglobin percentage (35%) compared middle and high-income (Heme Iron consumption) groups. It is observed that knowledge and awareness on Anemia was increased significantly among school children. In conclusion, considering the effectiveness of the intervention on Iron Deficiency Anemia should be started and dietary behaviors should be improved in adolescents for the control and prevention of Anemia and IDA in this population.
Keywords: Iron Deficiency Anemia, Iron Studies on Adolescents.
When our body doesn’t have enough iron, Iron deficiency anemia occurs. In Iron deficiency anemia condition, the patient doesn’t get enough oxygen throughout the body. The body uses iron to make hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a part of red blood cells. Oxygen is carried throughout the body by Hemoglobin. Lack of iron in the body, makes fewer and smaller red blood cells resulting in lower hemoglobin, and inadequate oxygen levels.
This publication is focused on Iron Deficiency Anemia and comparison between Heme Iron (meat consumption) and Non-Heme Iron (Plant based Iron rich food consumption) in subjects. It also provides information on how to prevent Iron Deficiency Anemia in Adolescents.
Intestinal mucosal cells in the duodenum and upper jejunum absorb the iron. The iron is coupled to transferrin (Tf) in the circulation which delivers it to the cells of the body. Phytates, tannins and antacids block iron absorption. Vitamin C rich foods will enhance the dietary iron absorption in the body. Calcium is found in foods suchas milk, yogurt, cheese, sardines,cannedsalmon, tofu, broccoli, almonds, figs, turnip greens and rhubarb and is the only known substance to inhibit absorption of both non-heme and heme iron. Eat non-heme iron foods (Plant
sources: legumes, grains, Nuts and seeds, vegetables) with vitamin C foods, and absorption can increase as much as five times.
Mucosal transfer of iron into the body occurs competitively with dietary iron that entered the absorptive cell as inorganic iron because they both share a common pathway within the intestinal cell.
Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) is most frequently used along with a serum iron test to evaluate people suspected of having either iron deficiency or iron overload. This test helps your doctor know how well that protein can carry iron in the blood. Normal range of ferritin levels should be 20 to 500 nanograms per milliliter in men. 20 to 200 nanograms per milliliter in women. Over-consumption of Iron in diet leads to acute toxicity that causes severe mucosal damage in the gastrointestinal tract, among other problems. Deficiency of Iron leads to Damage to the intestinal lining. Inflammation leading to hepcidin-induced restriction on iron release from enterocytes.
High levels of ferritin can indicate an iron storage disorder, such as hemochromatosis, or a chronic disease process. Low levels of ferritin are indicative of iron deficiency, which causes anemia.
2. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of Nutrition games on knowledge and attitudes of adolescents on Iron deficiency anemia.
2.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: Iron deficiency anemia is highly prevalent particularly among adolescents in developing countries. Adolescents are mainly suffering from anemia especially girl’s due to menstrual blood loss and improper nutrition. So, there is a need to give nutrition education for better awareness on Iron intake among adolescent girls in urban areas.
2.1.2. IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA SYMPTOMS
· Extreme fatigue
· Pale skin
· Shortness of breath
· Chest pain
· Frequent infections
· Dizziness or lightheadedness
· Cold hands and feet
· Inflammation or soreness of your tongue
· Brittle nails
· Fast heartbeat
To identify the contributing factors of Iron deficiency anemia in adolescent children.
To create awareness and knowledge on Iron deficiency in adolescent children.
To develop a Nutrition game on Iron rich foods.
To educate adolescent children through computer game on anemia.
To compare the Iron deficiency status among the school children with or without computer educational Intervention.
2.1.4. Review Of Literature
Health risks of Iron Deficiency Anemia:
Anuradhashekar (2011) reported that
Low iron stores in throughout childhood may delay the age at menarche.
· Severe anemia may lead to neurological abnormalities including head ache, irritability, generalized muscle weakness and ischemic attack.
· Anemia may also impair immune response. Lower verbal learning and memory. Decreased mood and ability to concentrate.
· International Journal of Obesity (2003) concluded Greater prevalence of iron deficiency in overweight and obese children and adolescents.
· Fogarty, et al, (Aug 2016) reported Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional disorder observed in adolescent girls in India.
2.1.5. CLASSIFICATION OF ANEMIA:
As Anemia is classified into three degrees according to WHO:
• Mild Anemia
• Moderate Anemia and
• Severe Anemia
Hb cut-off values of Anemia are as follows
• 10.0-11.9 g/dl (mild),
• 7.0-9.9 g/dl (moderate) and