1. INTRODUCTION :

 

 Cybercrime is
defined as crimes committed on the internet using the computer as either a tool
or a targeted victim by hacker or cracker2. while we growth on fast data
manipulating system in this technology era , Unfortunately, some of the skilled
professionals use this ability in a bad way by harming society, by finding the
vulnerabilities in the companies systems and tacking them, creating and distributing
virus-containing codes1.

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Here the term ‘cyber crime’ is a misnomer.Mainly the
concept of cyber crime is notradically different from the concept of
conventional crime.2 In recent year privacy and ethical behavior play
important role in our lives .it is especially important in the security related
areas1.

 

2.
What is Cyber Crime :

 

Cyber
crime is the recent and perhaps the most knowing problem in the cyber world.
“Cyber crime may be said to be those species, of which, genus is the common
crime, and where either the computer is an subject of the behaviour forming
crime” “Any criminal activity that uses a computer either as an instrumentality,
target or a means for maintaining further crimes comes within the curcuit of
cyber crime”3.

A definition
of cyber crime may be “illegal acts wherein the computer is either a tool or
target or both” The computer may be used as a tool in the following financial
crimes, sale of unlawful articles, pornography, intellectual property crime, e-mail
spoofing, cyber stalking, forgery, cyber defamation2. The computer may
however be target for illegal acts in the following cases- unrightful access to
computer system/ computer networks, theft of information contained in the
electronic form,so e-mail bombing, data didling, salami attacks, logic bombs,
Trojan attacks, internet time thefts,web jacking, theft of computer system,
physically damaging

the
computer system5.

 

3.
Who is Hacker :

 

There
are hundreds definitions of “hackers” on the Web. Combining it all together we
get a computer enthusiast, who enjoys learning programming languages and/or computer
systems

and
can often be considered an expert on the subject, So who had good skill at the
art and science of making computers and software do much more than the original
designers intended. “Hackers are computer experts6. Hackers built the
Internet. So Hackers made the Unix operating system what it is today. So Hackers
run Usenet7. Hackers make the World Wide Web work. So If you are part of this
culture, if you have contributed to it and other people in it know who you are
and call you a hacker, you are a hacker.

Real
hackers consider crackers lazy, irresponsible, and not very bright and want
nothing to do with them. Unfortunately, many journalists and writers have been fooled
into using the word “hacker” to describe “crackers”, which is a obviously
upsets real hackers

 

4.Who
is cracker :

 

A
person who breaks into other people’s computer systems to get a kick  and out of it or who intent to cause harm is a
“cracker”1.

 

A
hacker is a very talented programmer, respected by his peers.On the other hand
A

true
hacker can find plenty of useful projects to work on definityly breaking things
is more a characteristic of children of any age.Denifitely The basic difference
is this: hackers build things; crackers break them8.

 

5.
Reasons for Cyber Crime:

 

Now”The
Concept of Law” has said ‘human beings are vulnerable so rule of law is
required to protect them’.So,Applying this to the cyberspace we may say that
computers are vulnerable so rule of law is required to protect and safeguard
them against cyber crime. The reasons for the vulnerability of computers may be
said to be:

 

1.
Capacity to store data in comparatively small space:In the The computer has
unique characteristic of storing data in a very small space. This affords to
remove or derive information either through physical or virtual medium makes it
much easier.

 

2.
Easy to access: Also The problem encountered in guarding acomputer system from
unauthorised access is that there is every possibility of breach not due to
human error but

due to
the complex technology. By secretly implanted logic bomb, key loggers that can
steal access codes, advanced voice recorders; retina imagers etc. that can fool

biometric
systems and bypass firewalls can be utilized to

get
past many a security system.

 

3. Complex:In
the The computers work on operating systems and these operating systems inturn
are composed of millions of codes. Human mind is fallible and it is not
possiblethat there might not be a lapse at any stage. The cyber criminals take
advantage of these lacunas and penetrate into the computer system2.

 

4.
Negligence: So,Negligence is very closely connected withhuman conduct. It is
therefore very probable that while protecting the computer system there might
be any negligence, which in turn provides a cyber criminal to gain access and
control over the computer system.

 

 

5.
Loss of evidence:The  Loss of evidence is
a very common & obvious problem as all the data are routinely destroyed. Further
collection of data outside the territorial extent

also
paralyses this system of crime investigation.

 

 

 

6.
Types Of Cyber Crime :

 

Email
bombing:

 

In This
kind of activity refers to sending large numbers of mail to the victim, which
may be an individual or a company or even mail servers there by ultimately
resulting into crashing.

 

Data
diddling:

 

In This
kind of an attack involves altering raw data just before a computer processes
it and then changing it back after the processing is completed. The electricity
board faced similar problem of data diddling while the department was being computerized2.

 

Salami
attacks:

 

So,This
kind of crime is normally prevalent in the financial institutions or for the
purpose of committing financial crimes. An important feature of this type of
offence is that the alteration is so small that it would normally gounnoticed.
E.g. the Ziegler case wherein a logic bomb was

introduced
in the bank’s system, which deducted 10 cents from every account and deposited
it in a particular account.

 

Denial
of Service attack:

 

The
computer of the victim is flooded more requests than it can handle which cause
it to

crash.
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoss) attack is also a type of denial of
service attack, in which the offenders are wide in number and widespread.

 

Trojan
attacks:

 

Oviously,This
term has its origin in the word ‘Trojan horse’. In software field this means an
unauthorized

programme,
which passively gains control over another’s system by representing itself as
an authorised programme.The most common form of installing a Trojan is through
e-

mail.
E.g. a Trojan was installed in the computer of a ladyfilm director in the U.S.
while chatting.The cyber criminal through the web cam installed in the computer
obtained her nude photographs. He further harassed this lady.

 

Internet
time thefts:

 

 In  these kinds of thefts the Internet surfing
hours of the victim are used up by another

person.
This is done by gaining access to the login ID and the password. E.g. Colonel
Bajwa’s case- the Internet hours were used up by any other person. This was
perhaps one of the first reported cases related to cyber crime in India. However
this case made the police infamous as to their lack of understanding of the
nature of cyber crime4.

 

Web
jacking:

 

So,In
This term is derived from the term hi jacking. Inthese kinds of offences the
hacker gains access and control over the web site of another. He may even
mutilate or change the information on the site. This may be done for fulfilling
political objectives or for money. E.g. recently the site of MIT (Ministry of
Information Technology) was hacked by the

Pakistani
hackers and some obscene matter was placed therein. Further the site of Bombay
crime branch was also web jacked. Another case of web jacking is that of the
‘gold

fish’
case. In this case the site was hacked and the information pertaining to gold
fish was changed. Further a ransom of US $ 1 million was demanded as ransom.
Thus web jacking is a process whereby control over the site of another is made
backed by some consideration for it.

 

 

7.
Protection from cyber Crime :

 

So,Hacking
and its subcategory cyber-terrorism, is a growing

problem
that must be addressed accordingly. Dr. Les Labuschagne from the California
Berkley University suggests twoapproaches: proactive and reactive. Most
organizations adopt areactive approach to information security. The
vulnerability ofsystems is usually evaluated after an attack takes place,
resultinin money spent on fixing the security holes and recovering from

the
data and business loss. This is the least effective, and moreexpensive
approach. The proactive approach said to demonstrate organizations that try to
locate security holes before the hackers do. The proactive approach is
sometimes called “ethical hacking”.5

 

8 .
Conclusion :

 

In
this capacity of human mind is unfathomable. It is not possible to eliminate
cyber crime from the cyber space. It is quite possible to check them. History
is the witness that no legislation has succeeded in totally eliminating crime
from the globe. The only possiblestep is to make people aware of their rights
and duties.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

1 Cyber
Crime in the Society: Problems and Preventions , Kamini Dashora .

 2 .http://paper.ijcsns.org/07_book/201202/20120214.pdf

3. www.google.com

4.https://www.ukessays.com/essays/information-technology/cybercrime-problems-and-solutions-information-technology-essay.php

5https://sites.google.com/site/callingoffcybercrime/the-causes-and-criminals

6https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cybercrime

7 http://www.dfrws.org/sites/default/files/session-files/pres-self-reported_computer_criminal_behavior_-_a_psychological_analysis.pdf

 

8 Hacking Secret Expose  , Srikanth Ramesh.

 

9https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/241620

                               Cyber Crime

 

1. INTRODUCTION :

 

 Cybercrime is
defined as crimes committed on the internet using the computer as either a tool
or a targeted victim by hacker or cracker2. while we growth on fast data
manipulating system in this technology era , Unfortunately, some of the skilled
professionals use this ability in a bad way by harming society, by finding the
vulnerabilities in the companies systems and tacking them, creating and distributing
virus-containing codes1.

 

Here the term ‘cyber crime’ is a misnomer.Mainly the
concept of cyber crime is notradically different from the concept of
conventional crime.2 In recent year privacy and ethical behavior play
important role in our lives .it is especially important in the security related
areas1.

 

2.
What is Cyber Crime :

 

Cyber
crime is the recent and perhaps the most knowing problem in the cyber world.
“Cyber crime may be said to be those species, of which, genus is the common
crime, and where either the computer is an subject of the behaviour forming
crime” “Any criminal activity that uses a computer either as an instrumentality,
target or a means for maintaining further crimes comes within the curcuit of
cyber crime”3.

A definition
of cyber crime may be “illegal acts wherein the computer is either a tool or
target or both” The computer may be used as a tool in the following financial
crimes, sale of unlawful articles, pornography, intellectual property crime, e-mail
spoofing, cyber stalking, forgery, cyber defamation2. The computer may
however be target for illegal acts in the following cases- unrightful access to
computer system/ computer networks, theft of information contained in the
electronic form,so e-mail bombing, data didling, salami attacks, logic bombs,
Trojan attacks, internet time thefts,web jacking, theft of computer system,
physically damaging

the
computer system5.

 

3.
Who is Hacker :

 

There
are hundreds definitions of “hackers” on the Web. Combining it all together we
get a computer enthusiast, who enjoys learning programming languages and/or computer
systems

and
can often be considered an expert on the subject, So who had good skill at the
art and science of making computers and software do much more than the original
designers intended. “Hackers are computer experts6. Hackers built the
Internet. So Hackers made the Unix operating system what it is today. So Hackers
run Usenet7. Hackers make the World Wide Web work. So If you are part of this
culture, if you have contributed to it and other people in it know who you are
and call you a hacker, you are a hacker.

Real
hackers consider crackers lazy, irresponsible, and not very bright and want
nothing to do with them. Unfortunately, many journalists and writers have been fooled
into using the word “hacker” to describe “crackers”, which is a obviously
upsets real hackers

 

4.Who
is cracker :

 

A
person who breaks into other people’s computer systems to get a kick  and out of it or who intent to cause harm is a
“cracker”1.

 

A
hacker is a very talented programmer, respected by his peers.On the other hand
A

true
hacker can find plenty of useful projects to work on definityly breaking things
is more a characteristic of children of any age.Denifitely The basic difference
is this: hackers build things; crackers break them8.

 

5.
Reasons for Cyber Crime:

 

Now”The
Concept of Law” has said ‘human beings are vulnerable so rule of law is
required to protect them’.So,Applying this to the cyberspace we may say that
computers are vulnerable so rule of law is required to protect and safeguard
them against cyber crime. The reasons for the vulnerability of computers may be
said to be:

 

1.
Capacity to store data in comparatively small space:In the The computer has
unique characteristic of storing data in a very small space. This affords to
remove or derive information either through physical or virtual medium makes it
much easier.

 

2.
Easy to access: Also The problem encountered in guarding acomputer system from
unauthorised access is that there is every possibility of breach not due to
human error but

due to
the complex technology. By secretly implanted logic bomb, key loggers that can
steal access codes, advanced voice recorders; retina imagers etc. that can fool

biometric
systems and bypass firewalls can be utilized to

get
past many a security system.

 

3. Complex:In
the The computers work on operating systems and these operating systems inturn
are composed of millions of codes. Human mind is fallible and it is not
possiblethat there might not be a lapse at any stage. The cyber criminals take
advantage of these lacunas and penetrate into the computer system2.

 

4.
Negligence: So,Negligence is very closely connected withhuman conduct. It is
therefore very probable that while protecting the computer system there might
be any negligence, which in turn provides a cyber criminal to gain access and
control over the computer system.

 

 

5.
Loss of evidence:The  Loss of evidence is
a very common & obvious problem as all the data are routinely destroyed. Further
collection of data outside the territorial extent

also
paralyses this system of crime investigation.

 

 

 

6.
Types Of Cyber Crime :

 

Email
bombing:

 

In This
kind of activity refers to sending large numbers of mail to the victim, which
may be an individual or a company or even mail servers there by ultimately
resulting into crashing.

 

Data
diddling:

 

In This
kind of an attack involves altering raw data just before a computer processes
it and then changing it back after the processing is completed. The electricity
board faced similar problem of data diddling while the department was being computerized2.

 

Salami
attacks:

 

So,This
kind of crime is normally prevalent in the financial institutions or for the
purpose of committing financial crimes. An important feature of this type of
offence is that the alteration is so small that it would normally gounnoticed.
E.g. the Ziegler case wherein a logic bomb was

introduced
in the bank’s system, which deducted 10 cents from every account and deposited
it in a particular account.

 

Denial
of Service attack:

 

The
computer of the victim is flooded more requests than it can handle which cause
it to

crash.
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoss) attack is also a type of denial of
service attack, in which the offenders are wide in number and widespread.

 

Trojan
attacks:

 

Oviously,This
term has its origin in the word ‘Trojan horse’. In software field this means an
unauthorized

programme,
which passively gains control over another’s system by representing itself as
an authorised programme.The most common form of installing a Trojan is through
e-

mail.
E.g. a Trojan was installed in the computer of a ladyfilm director in the U.S.
while chatting.The cyber criminal through the web cam installed in the computer
obtained her nude photographs. He further harassed this lady.

 

Internet
time thefts:

 

 In  these kinds of thefts the Internet surfing
hours of the victim are used up by another

person.
This is done by gaining access to the login ID and the password. E.g. Colonel
Bajwa’s case- the Internet hours were used up by any other person. This was
perhaps one of the first reported cases related to cyber crime in India. However
this case made the police infamous as to their lack of understanding of the
nature of cyber crime4.

 

Web
jacking:

 

So,In
This term is derived from the term hi jacking. Inthese kinds of offences the
hacker gains access and control over the web site of another. He may even
mutilate or change the information on the site. This may be done for fulfilling
political objectives or for money. E.g. recently the site of MIT (Ministry of
Information Technology) was hacked by the

Pakistani
hackers and some obscene matter was placed therein. Further the site of Bombay
crime branch was also web jacked. Another case of web jacking is that of the
‘gold

fish’
case. In this case the site was hacked and the information pertaining to gold
fish was changed. Further a ransom of US $ 1 million was demanded as ransom.
Thus web jacking is a process whereby control over the site of another is made
backed by some consideration for it.

 

 

7.
Protection from cyber Crime :

 

So,Hacking
and its subcategory cyber-terrorism, is a growing

problem
that must be addressed accordingly. Dr. Les Labuschagne from the California
Berkley University suggests twoapproaches: proactive and reactive. Most
organizations adopt areactive approach to information security. The
vulnerability ofsystems is usually evaluated after an attack takes place,
resultinin money spent on fixing the security holes and recovering from

the
data and business loss. This is the least effective, and moreexpensive
approach. The proactive approach said to demonstrate organizations that try to
locate security holes before the hackers do. The proactive approach is
sometimes called “ethical hacking”.5

 

8 .
Conclusion :

 

In
this capacity of human mind is unfathomable. It is not possible to eliminate
cyber crime from the cyber space. It is quite possible to check them. History
is the witness that no legislation has succeeded in totally eliminating crime
from the globe. The only possiblestep is to make people aware of their rights
and duties.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

1 Cyber
Crime in the Society: Problems and Preventions , Kamini Dashora .

 2 .http://paper.ijcsns.org/07_book/201202/20120214.pdf

3. www.google.com

4.https://www.ukessays.com/essays/information-technology/cybercrime-problems-and-solutions-information-technology-essay.php

5https://sites.google.com/site/callingoffcybercrime/the-causes-and-criminals

6https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cybercrime

7 http://www.dfrws.org/sites/default/files/session-files/pres-self-reported_computer_criminal_behavior_-_a_psychological_analysis.pdf

 

8 Hacking Secret Expose  , Srikanth Ramesh.

 

9https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/241620