1.
Hinduism started as the faith of Aryan tribes that migrated to India, and all
Hindus formally venerate their four holy books, the Vedas. The Aryans absorbed
local gods and customs as they went. One result is that virtually none of the
gods of the Vedas is worshipped in Hindu temples today; almost all the deities
are local ones or hybrids; therefore, gods in Hinduism diverse, and range from
ranging from monastic self-denial to worship of the goddess of wealth; from
non-violence to human sacrifice; from chastity to religion-sexual orgies. Hinduism
tolerates so much internal diversity because this religion has no hierarchy.
Hindu monasteries have venerated gurus, but any Hindu can differ from them. Any
Hindu can don a monk’s robe, preach pretty well what he likes, and be respected
as a holy man. The history and culture of Hinduism make it able to
tolerant internal diversity because it generates tradition and religion
together. 

2. Brahmins. They
are the priestly classes, who are entitled to study the Vedas, perform rites
and rituals for themselves and for others and obliged to observe the
sacraments. They are the middlemen between gods and men. They are expected to
show exemplary behavior and spend their lives in the pursuit of divine
knowledge and preservation of the traditions. They are the lawmaker, and born
to serve and protect the dharma. He belonged to the excellent of the human
race, was the highest on earth, the lord of all created beings. 

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Kshatriyas. They are the warrior class, who are commanded to
protect the people, bestow gifts to the Brahmins, and offer sacrifices to gods
and ancestors.

Vaisyas: They are the merchants and peasant classes, who are
expected to tend cattle, offer sacrifices, study the Vedas, trade, lend money
and cultivate the land. 

Shudras: They are the labor class, whose only duty is to serve
the other three castes.

Chandalas: The lowest of the Shudras were called chandalas or the
impure ones. They were treated as untouchables because of their gory religious
practices, penchant for sacrifices, magical rites and unclean habits. 

6. Caste System has been the bane of Hindu society for
centuries. The Hindu caste system is unique in the world, but resembles in some
ways Plato’s ideal society of philosophers, warriors and commoners. A caste is
a division of society based on occupation and family lineage. Hindu caste
system recognized four distinct classes or divisions among people based on its
criteria. From a Hindu view, caste system built a good rule for the society;
because it is cased on the classes, every people has its role in the society,
and every people should follow the caste system rule, which helps the
stableness of the society. However, from a non-Hindu view, the caste system
violates one of the contemporary cognitive: everyone is born to be equal.
Because caste system divide people by their birth; this is not right because
under this rule, there are classes to divide the society, and not everyone has
the equal chance.

 

12.  Four Stages of Life set basic laws for Hindus
and gives them meaning of life. Hinduism indicates that human beings are
completely responsible for their actions and the paths they chose to lead their
lives. It gives them complete freedom to follow their inherent nature and
explore their inner world to arrive at the absolute Truth about themselves and their
existence. Hinduism does emphasize that one should live upon earth morally
and responsibly according to Four Stages of Life.  According to Hinduism every human being, who
is an aspect of God, has to live, practice and protect his Dharma or moral and religious
laws. If he does not participate in God’s work to keep the order and regularity
of the world and does not protect His Law, he is not entitled to moksha or
salvation. Moksha is the highest reward for stepping into the shoes of God and
exemplifying Him upon earth.

13. The position of women
in Hinduism is mixed and contradictory. Women who are mothers of a son, with
their husbands still alive, are the most auspicious members of society. It is
when and if their husbands die, that a woman may lose her status in society. The
Hindu woman has no right to divorce her husband. She has no property or
inheritance rights. Choice of partner is limited because she can only marry
within her own caste; moreover her horoscope must match that of the intending bridegroom/family.
The family of the girl has to offer an enormous dowry to the bridegroom/family.
If her husband dies she should commit Sati (being cremated with her dead
husband). Since today’s law forbids Sati, society mainly punishes her in other
“holy” ways. She can never remarry. The widow is considered to be a curse and
must not be seen in public. She cannot wear jewelry or colorful clothes. She
should not even take part in her children’s marriage. Child and infant marriage
is encouraged.

15. Bhakti literally means
“attachment, participation, fondness for, homage, faith, love, devotion,
worship, piety”. In Hinduism, it refers to devotion to, and love for, a
personal god or a representational god by a devotee. Bhakti means food,
the sacrificed; bhakti is the act of sacrifice; and bhakti is the recipient of the
sacrifice. In a ritual sense, a bhakti is one who offers him or who is offered
as a sacrifice in a sacrificial ritual. Bhakti
also means he who offers sacrificial foods an offering to God, who is the final
recipient and the Enjoyer of all material things. He is also the devourer. Devotion is a sacrificial act of offering in which you
earn the grace of God by offering either yourself or what you have as the
sacrificial material or food. In a general sense, bhakti means
having devotion, attachment or loyalty to God. Every Hindu who participates in
a ritual worship receives Prasad am and knows that it signals the end of the
ritual. However, few people know what it means and what it signifies. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section
B

1.
I love yoga very much. I think it is a way to stretch my body and help me to
relax myself. I have a yoga mat in my apartment; in my spare time, I like to
lie down on my yoga mat to do some stretching, because I believe it is a good
way to keep my body skinny, and to develop my temperament. Also, last summer, I
took yoga class in China; teacher taught me how to do yoga practice right. And
after finishing a set of yoga practice, I feel my body is relaxed, and I gained
a lot of benefit from doing yoga practice.

Yoga
is a family of ancient spiritual practices that originated in India, where it
remains a vibrant living tradition and is seen as a means to enlightenment.
Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Janna Yoga, and Raja Yoga are considered the four main
yoga, but there are many other types. In other parts of the world where yoga is
popular, notably the United States, yoga has become associated with the postures
of Hatha Yoga, which are popular as fitness exercises. Yoga as a means to
enlightenment is central to Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and has
influenced other religious and spiritual practices throughout the world. 

At
its broadest, yoga, from the root word “yuj” in Sanskrit, means to unite. Most
Hindu texts discuss yoga as a practice to control the senses and ultimately,
the mind. The most famous is the Bhagavad Gita in which Krishna speaks of
four types of yoga – bhakti,
or devotion; Janna, or knowledge; karma, or action; and hyena, or concentration – as paths to
achieve moksha, the ultimate goal according to Hindu understanding.

Section
C

1. Sati is described as a Hindu custom in India in
which the widow was burnt to ashes on her dead husband’s pyre. Basically the
custom of Sati was believed to be a voluntary Hindu act in which the woman
voluntary decides to end her life with her husband after his death. Sati is the practice among some Hindu
communities by which a recently widowed woman either voluntarily or by use of
force or coercion commits suicide as a result of her husband’s death.  The
best-known form of sati is when a woman burns to death on her husband’s funeral
pyre.  However other forms of sati exist, including being buried alive
with the husband’s corpse and drowning.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section
D

Hinduism is an
Indian Dharma, or a way of life, widely practiced in South Aisa. Hinduism
has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and
scholars refer to it as Sanatana Dharma, “the eternal tradition,” or
the “eternal way,” beyond human history. Hinduism includes a
diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but has no
ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing
body, no prophet(s) nor any binding holy book; Hindus can choose to be
polytheistic, pantheistic, monotheistic, monistic, agnostic, atheistic or
humanist.

The position of women in
Hinduism is mixed and contradictory. Women who are mothers of a son, with their
husbands still alive, are the most auspicious members of society. It is when
and if their husbands die, that a woman may lose her status in society.

One of the significant things in Hinduism is The
Indian Caste System. There are five stages. Brahmins. They are the priestly classes, who are entitled to
study the Vedas, perform rites and rituals for themselves and for others and
obliged to observe the sacraments. They are the middlemen between gods and men.
Kshatriyas. They are the
warrior class, who are commanded to protect the people, bestow gifts to the
Brahmins, and offer sacrifices to gods and ancestors. Vaisyas: They are the merchants and peasant classes, who are
expected to tend cattle, offer sacrifices, study the Vedas, trade, lend money
and cultivate the land. Shudras:
They are the labor class, whose only duty is to serve the other three castes. Chandalas: The lowest of the Shudras
were called chandalas or the impure ones. They were treated as untouchables
because