1) Liberal pacifism believes that capitalism and democracy are forces for peace. Additionally, liberal pacifism strives to maintain peaceful conditions. They also believe in free and peaceful trade because then no class gains from forcible expansion and no one is hurt economically. Their people are democratized, individualized, and rationalized. The readings state that “The people’s energies are daily absorbed in production. The disciplines of industry and the market train people in “economic rationalism”; the instability of industrial life necessitates calculation. Capitalism also “individualizes”; “subjective opportunities” replace the “immutable factors” of traditional, hierarchical societies” (Doyle 52). Their state is that of a capitalist democracy. Compared to liberal imperialism they want just material welfare while liberal imperialism wants more than just material welfare. Liberal imperialism expands because of feeling threatened by other states with similar aims and due to citizens needing to satisfy their ambition or to release their political energies through imperial expansion. However, the political view of liberal pacifism does not believe in expansion. Liberal pacifism actually contends with liberal imperialism that “the modern populace actually controls (and thus unbalances) the mixed republic, its diffidence may outweigh elite (“senatorial”) aggressiveness”(Doyle 54). The state of liberal imperialism is a mixed republic characterized by social equality, popular liberty, and political participation. Liberal internationalism believes that there must be a united constitution among liberal states to “connect the characteristics of liberal politics and economies with sustained liberal peace… because the political bonds of liberal rights and interests have proven a remarkably firm foundation for mutual nonaggression. A separate peace exists among liberal states” (Doyle 59). Consequently, the state of liberal internationalism is a republic. Furthermore, liberal internationalism differs from liberal pacifism because it remains in a state of war with nonrepublics while liberal pacifism tries to remain out of conflicts and war.